Useful Notes on 6 Major Emotions in Humans
Fears are often influenced by the culture to which we belong. For example, primitive people may be afraid of ghosts, whereas, a city dweller may be more afraid of violence and bomb explosion. Fear often serves as a means of social control. Strict laws are framed to arouse fear among people.
Intense irrational fear of something specific is called phobia. Vague experiences of fear are called anxieties.
(ii) Anger is an emotion that is characterised by a high level of activity in the sympathetic nervous system. Anger leads to a high level of arousal. Whenever an individual’s goal- directed activity is blocked, frustration and anger results.
The cause of anger and expression of anger change with age. Among children, imposition of discipline, not allowing them to play, etc. can lead to anger. Among adults social frustrations, insults, business problems, etc., can give rise to anger. Among very young children anger takes the form of temper tantrums, fighting, bullying, etc. Among adults and adolescents, anger is expressed in a subtle and indirect manner as a result of parental training and social pressure.
(iii) Love is defined as an emotion in which there is a deep sense of acceptance or commitment to some person, object or activity. It is an emotion having three characteristics namely caring, attachment and intimacy.
Love is a positive emotion necessary for our self-development and healthy adjustment.
(iv) Sadness is an emotion which is accompanied by negative mood, crying behaviour and lack of activity. Sadness occurs when there is a loss of an important pleasure-producing object, person or position.
(v) Guilt is an emotion which arises when our normal personal standard or values are violated. It leads to embarrassment and shame.
(vi) Pleasure or joy is experienced when our motives are satisfied. Tasty food for hungry organism produces pleasure. Talking to an old friend or achieving a desired goal gives us pleasure. Pleasure is expressed in many ways like smiling, laughing, hugging and kissing.