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Category: Free Essays

Section 498 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The section contemplates that the offender must take or entice away a woman. Such woman must be the wife of another man. The offender must either know or have reason to believe that the woman is the wife of another man. The taking or enticement of the woman must be from the man to whom […]

Section 499 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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All these factors have immensely contributed to the volume of the section. The section says that whoever, either by spoken words or by words that are intended to be read, or by signs or by visible representations, either makes or publishes any imputation which concerns any person, either with the intention to harm the reputation […]

Section 498A of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The section contemplates that the offender must be either the husband of a woman or a relative of his. The offender must subject such woman to cruelty. The explanation attached to this section defines cruelty by saying that for the purposes of this section cruelty means (a) any wilful conduct which is of such a […]

Section 497 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The section contemplates that a man must have sexual intercourse with a woman who is the wife of another man and about whom he must have knowledge or must have reason to believe that she is the wife of another man. This sexual intercourse must take place without the consent or connivance of that man. […]

Section 495 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The section contemplates that the offender must commit the offence of marrying again during the lifetime of the husband or wife, as the case may be, as defined in section 494. The offender must do so after having concealed the fact of the former marriage from the person with whom the subsequent marriage is contracted. […]

Section 501 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The Indian Penal Code has used the words having reason to believe in many sections. But this is one section where the authors of the Code have gone further and have added the adjective ‘good’ before the words ‘reason to believe’. This indicates that they wanted the courts to be very careful and meticulous while […]

Section 477A of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The explanation attached to the section states that under this section it shall be sufficient to allege a general intention to defraud without naming any particular person intended to be defrauded or without specifying any particular sum of money intended to be the subject of the fraud, or without specifying any particular day on which […]

4 Most Important Characteristic Features of Gifts under Muslim Law

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(1) Gift is a transfer of property by act of the parties and not a transfer who takes place by operation of law e.g. inheritance or a transfer under the order of a court. In a gift, a living person voluntarily conveys his properties to another living person. (2) Gift is transfer of ownership of […]

Section 471 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

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The offender can be convicted under this section only when he has fraudulent or dishonest intention and with such intention he uses any document or electronic record as genuine when he knows the same to be forged or when he has reason to believe that document or electronic record to be a forged document or […]

3 Essential Conditions for a Valid Gift (Hiba) under Muslim Law

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(III) The delivery of possession. A Hiba is not valid unless these three essential conditions are fulfilled. I. Declaration of Gift: Declaration is a statement which signifies the intention of the transferor that he intends to make a gift. The person who declares that he is transferring his property through a gift is called donor. […]