Project Approach to Agricultural Development Project Concept in India – Essay

It has a set goal to achieve, the area or the region where it is to be implemented is predetermined and the time to terminate the commitment is fixed in advance. It is something which is measurable both in its major costs and return. It will have group activities which could be financed and a group can get benefits which could be identified and values are estimated. It will have a specific clientele which it is intended to reach.

Need for Project Approach:

(a) Projects carefully prepared within the framework of broader development plans contribute to the larger development effort.

(b) Projects give an idea of costs year by year so that those responsible for providing necessary resources can do their own planning.

(c) Projects analysis bring out the effects of a proposed investment on the participants of the project whether they are farmers or government agencies.

(d) Project permits a better judgement of the administrative and organizational problem that are likely to be encountered.

(e) Project encourage conscious and systematic examination of alternatives.

(f) Projects help in building up a data base which is lacking in many developing countries.

Strategies for planning projects:

Strategies in planning of agricultural projects should be guided by the National priorities, viz growth with social justice. Sometimes it might happen that the growth aspects are given prominence while the social justice aspects are relegated to the background. Consistent with the overall national objectives, project planning strategy should have the following priorities.

(a) Projects which have better distribution effects.

(b) Projects which increase benefits rapidly.

(c) Projects in areas which are relatively less developed.

(d) Projects which would benefit the most vulnerable sections of the community.

(e) Projects which have greater employment potential.

The best strategy to be adopted in agricultural project planning should be such that there is simultaneous development of those activities which would bring about the greatest benefit to the largest number of people.

Having decided the priorities, the next question would be to choose the projects. The strategy in deciding agricultural projects-single purpose or multipurpose projects. Planning and operation are easy in single purpose (as for e.g. dug well schemes, shallow wells schemes, schemes for the installation of pump sets etc.,) They are quick yielding and can be implemented by private bodies. The planning of multipurpose projects (major irrigation projects) on the other hand is complex and requires heavy financial involvement. The return from these projects is obtained after a long gestation period and hence generally only public bodies would be able to undertake these projects.

Projects Cycle:

The effective phases in a project cycle:

The reason why it is considered as a cycle is that each phase not only grows out of the proceeding one, but leads into the subsequent one and it is a self renewing cycle so that new projects grow out of old ones in continuous process.


It is the process of identifying, in a preliminary way, projects which are of high priority, which might be suitable for bank financing and which the borrower, the bank and the government are interested in considering. There are essentially three tests involved in identification of the project. These are;

(a) Whether the sector of the economy in which the project falls and the project itself are of high priority for development and recognized as such, in the Government’s developmental plan.

(b) Whether, on prima facie grounds, the project seems to be feasible i.e., whether a technical solution to the problem to which the project is addressed to, can be found at a cost commensurate with the benefits to be expected?

(c) Whether the government is willing to support the project by financial and other means, if required?

The following sources will help to identify new projects

(a) Governmental Five year plans.

(b) Existing Projects.

(c) Natural resources etc.


This covers the steps necessary to bring a project to the point where its technical, economical and financial feasibility are established and its is ready for appraisal. It involves decisions based on technical judgements about the site and location of the facility and more broadly, on the appropriate technical features of the project itself. This is the stage during which the resources have to be judged and analysed. The alternatives are systematically to be explored. This is the stage wherein feasibility studies have to be conducted and preliminary investigations have to be made.


Appraisal covers the following aspects:

(a) Technical aspects

(b) Economic aspects

(c) Commercial aspects

(d) Financial aspects

(e) Managerial aspects

(f) Organizational aspects

The technical analysis will examines the possible technical conditions in the proposed agricultural project- the natural and physical resources, the availability and the potentials, the cropping pattern, the marketing arrangements etc.

The economic analysis covers the contribution of the project to the overall development of the economy and whether the project could contribute to the economy with justification for the utilization of the scarce resources.

The commercial analysis would deal with the arrangements for marketing the output produced by the project and the arrangement for supply of inputs needed to build and operate the project. The most important is that the demand and supply be ensured.

The financial analysis of a project covers all the financial effects of a proposed project on its beneficiaries. Farm budgets have to be prepared for the beneficiaries to determine the project’s financial viability. The budget should determine the estimate year by year (gross receipts and expenditures), including the costs associated with the production and the loan repayments, to determine the net amount that will go to the family resources for its labour, management skills and capital. The farm budget also becomes the basis for fixing the loan period and the repayment schedule.

The managerial aspects are crucial to good project design, implementation and operation. The following are to be considered.

(a) The managerial skills of the participating farmer;

(b) The availability of extension functionaries;

(c) The availability of technology;

(d) The availability of training programme for the farmers;

(e) The ability of the developmental departments to implement and monitor the project.

The organizational aspect deals with the authority of the organization and the linkages of the responsibility with the authority. The organization should have a sound system of accounting to ensure prompt disbursements under the project and to keep record of its progress.


This is the most important step in the project cycle. A project has to be monitored during its implementation in order to ensure that it is completed as per the schedule and the expected benefits are realised by the beneficiaries. Problems may arise during the implementation of the project. The cost may go up and even the technologies may change. In order to have these settled, frequent monitoring is essential. Monitoring is the timely collection of data and analysis of the process and to find out whether the project is moving in the anticipated direction or not. If deviations occur, they have to be rectified.


The evaluation is the analysis study to determine the factors responsible for the success or failure of the project in order to learn how to plan better for the future. This is not only carried at the end but also in between while monitoring. The evaluation is always done on the objectives formulated for the project.

Risks and Risk Management in Agricultural financing

What is risk?

The exposure to the chance of injury or loss; a hazard/ threads or dangerous chance to any event.

What is risk mitigation?

Effort to reduce the severity, loss or injury to happen or happened.

Risks associated with borrowers:

1. Interference of money lenders in funding during seasons.

2. Effect of ownership of lands and lending by bankers.

3. Unfavourable attitude of farmers towards agriculture.

4. Ignorance and illiteracy of farmers.

5. Low bargaining power of farmers- uncertainty of price.

6. Weak mind set of farmers leading to committing suicides.

7. Unaware of the concept of time value of money.

8. Sub-division and fragmentation of holding.

9. Unexpected events like death of the borrower.

10. Improper accounting standards.

11. Financial illiteracy

12. Distance from the place of production and place of sale.

13. Lack of awareness of value added agriculture.

14. Farmers are price takers and not price givers/ fixers.

15. Willful default.

Risks associated with bankers/ banks:

1. Lack of knowledge of bankers on farm lending resulting in improper appraisal.

2. Under-financing/ Over-financing of farm/ non-farm activities.

3. Low interest rates.

4. High transaction costs in lending.

5. Financial exclusion.

6. Financing in unsuitable areas.

7. Lack of awareness of value added agriculture.

8. Failure of diversified credit to agriculture.

9. Inadequate loan collaterals.

10. Unaware of market values at the time of loan disbursal.

11. Land is cultivated but with usufruct rights.

12. Concessions in terms of lending like interest rates.

13. Lack of systems, experience and incentives to enforce loan repayments.

14. Lack of knowledge on project lending to agriculture.

15. System created is borrower dominated rather than depositors.

16. Cost over-run due to time over-run.

17. Foreign exchange risk.

18. Liquidity risk- mismatch between resources and requirements.

19. Fast lending.

Risks associated with uncontrollable events.

1. Unpredictable impact of weather/ climate- Vegaries of monsoon.

2. Effects due to pests and diseases- crops.

3. Effects due to diseases/ permanent total disability- livestock.

4. Effects due to the fire accidents.

Risks associated with others:

1. Lack of proper planning for varying agro- climatic/ agri-export zones.

2. Improper price fixation, fluctuating Minimum Support Price and Price concentrated risk.

3. More middle men in marketing.

4. Delay in insurance settlements.

5. Political interference.

6. Lack of extension services from Govt, side

7. Creation of subsidy culture.

8. Changing Govt, policies on agriculture.

9. Too many players in the market but too little done.

10. Improper implementation and monitoring of Govt, directed schemes.

11. More a targeted approach rather than a productive approach.

Risks associated with activities (farm and non­farm):

1. Farming- still a traditional approach.

2. Uncertainty in the maturity pattern of crops.

3. Seasonality risk.

4. Poor yields/ productivity.

5. Yield uncertainty- reduction or increase in yield/ productivity.

6. Non-availability of inputs.

7. Non- availability of quality seeds and fertilizers.

8. Increase in cost of inputs.

9. Water of irrigation- a critical constraining factor.

10. Non-availability of agricultural labour during peak agriculture seasons.

11. Increase in cost of agricultural labour.

12. Migration of agricultural labour and professional shift.

13. Lack of good rural markets/ marketing and weak market infrastructure.

14. Continuous cultivation of land/ mono-crop leading to depletion of soil- mineral resources.

15. Excess application of fertilizers and pesticides.

16. High post harvest processing costs.

17. Post harvest losses.

18. Lack of storage structures.

19. Hoarding of produce leading to price hike.

20. Intermediary costs.

21. Price uncertainty.

22. Agri movable assets- high risk.

23. Pledging spurious jewels- frauds.

Self Help Groups

What is Self Help Group?

An SHG has an average size of about 15 people from a homogeneous class. They come together for addressing their common problems. They are encouraged to make voluntary thrift on a regular basis. They use pooled resources to make small interest bearing loans to their members. The process helps them imbibe the essentials of financial discipline in all of them. They also learn to handle resources of a size that is much beyond individual capacities of any of them.

The SHG members begin to appreciate that resources are limited and have a cost. Once the groups show this mature financial behaviour, banks are encouraged to make loans to the SHG in certain multiples of the accumulated savings of the SHG. The bank loans are given without any collateral and at market interest rates. The groups continue to decide the terms of loans of their own members. Since the group’s own accumulated savings are part and parcel of the aggregate loans made by the groups to their members, peer pressure ensure timely repayments.

Benefits of SHGs:

For members

i. Discuss and help each other to solve common problems

ii. Collect and use own savings to make interest bearing small loans to each other.

iii. Learn basics of financial intermediation.

iv. Learn to appreciate other’s needs and prioritise their own needs’.

v. Start handling resources of a size much beyond their individual capacities.

vi. Realise that resources are scarce and that they have a cost.

vii. Learn that repayment is not difficult, with regular savings habit.

viii. Use peer pressure as an effective substitute for collateral security.

ix. Win the confidence of the formal banking system through mature financial behaviour, leading to further access to need based funds.

x. Learn to interact with the external environment in a meaningful way, leading to increased self esteem and confidence.

For Banks:

i. Benefits from reduced transaction costs through economies of scale.

ii. Learn to externalize credit supervision and servicing to the NGOs or the SHGs themselves.

iii. Benefits from mobilization of small savings through groups, gaining access to low-cost funds.

iv. Accept peer pressure within the SHGs as an excellent substitute for collateral securities, leading to more than 95% repayments.

v. Get timely repayments leading to faster recycling of funds.

vi. Recognize SHGs as the appropriate medium for expansion of business of rural branches for wider coverage of clientele.

vii. Recognize the prospects of ‘ripple effect’ in quality among their clientele.

viii. Build goodwill among the rural clientele.

ix. Benefit from full refinance facility from NABARD for better fund management.

For NGOs:

i. Find SHGs as complimentary to their core functions.

ii. Use the synergy of social and economic programers for better impact on the poor.

iii. Deepen and widen the outreach to the poor through ‘credit plus’ approach.

iv. Gain recognition as socioeconomic change agents.

v. Use the avenue for performing financially intermediation in underbanked areas.

vi. Act as meaningful agents between banks and the poor.

vii. Perform the role of propagators of innovative financial services delivery approaches.

SHG Bank Linkage Programme: Process as on 31st December 2005

Cumulative number of SHGs credit linked: 18, 29,847

Cumulative bank loan disbursed: Rs. 83191 million

Cumulative refinance drawn by banks: Rs. 37414 million

Support from NABARD


i. Conceptualized and introduced the pilot phase of SHG Bank Linkage Programme.

ii. Contributes to conductive policy framework.

iii. Value addition to the programme by developing and sharing different types of conceptual inputs for the stake holders.

iv. Making available on large scale capacity building inputs.

v. Fund support for expendable and loan funding needs of participating agencies.

vi. Holds training consultations, supports stakeholders in training interventions.

vii. Supports banks to act as Self Help Promoting Institutions.

Kishan Credit Card:


>All farmers.


>To meet the short term credit requirements for cultivation of seasonal, annual, perennial crops.

> The scale of finance is to be taken as indicatory cost and not mandatory. In case of high yielding varieties of irrigated crops, limit can be fixed upto 120% of scale of finance where there is tie-up arrangement with Corporates when there is need to incur additional cost towards quality inputs.

> Besides the above, KCC 1imit will be arrived at as given below:

> Post-harvest/ Household requirements of the farmer at 10% of the limit fixed subject to a maximum of Rs. 25000/- per farmer.

> 10% towards maintenance of farm assets subject to a maximum of Rs.25000/- per farmer.

Interest Rate:

Crop Loan and Term Loan (Repayment < 36 Months):

Upto 3 lakhs @ 7%

Rs. 3.00 to @ BPLR + 0.5 – 13.00

Rs. 5.00 lakhs

Rs. 5.00 lakhs @ BPLR+I.00%- 13.50%

Other features of the scheme:

i. The limit sanctioned is in the form of revolving credit. Hence, any number of debits/ credits may be allowed subject to the seasonal drawing limit.

ii. In case of natural calamities in the area declared, the amount released for the specified crop may be rephased/ rescheduled as term loan and further withdrawals upto the seasonal sublimits fixed may be permitted, if there are no other irregularities.

iii. With drawals in the account should be restricted to the seasonal sub-limit fixed for the respective seasons. Drawals/ repayment schedule have to be arrived at factoring in the nature of the crop cultivated.

iv. The loan amount released for one season should be adjusted within 2 months from the date of harvest of the crop.

v. Renewal will be permitted only for satisfactorily operated accounts both in terms of drawal and adherence to seasonal sub-limits.

vi. Separate SB account need not be opened as the crop loan is given in the form of cash credit.

vii. Credit balance in the account will be entitled for interest on par with SB accounts.

viii. No service/ inspection fee to be levied for a loan limit upto Rs. 25000/. For loan amount exceeding the above, service charges will be levied.

ix. Chitta, adangal and other farm documents to be produced by the farmer once in 3 years.

x. All eligible 1BKC far rarners will be covered under Permanent Accident Insurance scheme.

xi. Annual premium under PAIS is Rs. 15 per farmer, of which Rs. 5/- will be borne by the borrower and the balance Rs. 10/- by the bank.

xii. Insurance of notified crops in notified areas under National Agri Insurance scheme is compulsory and the premium amount to be paid by the farmer at the time of availing credit under IBKC scheme.

xiii. Disbursement can be in the form of cash. However, receipts for fertiliser, seeds should be produced by the farmer for ensuring end use.

xiv. Tenants farmers are also eligible for availing IBKC.


Communication means transmitting and receiving information, signals or messages by means of gestures, words or symbols from one person to another. Communication is indispensable.

Communication is not what is transmitted but it is what is perceived. It is information coloured by the perceptions and intentions of both the sender and the recipient.

Basic Components are:-

1. What to say: message

2. When to say: timing

3. How to say: medium

4. Who to say: sender

5. Where to say: receiver

6. Why to say: reason

A successful communication should be CLEAR (evident to recipient), correct (free from faults), CANDID (sincere and open), CONCISE (brief in content), CONCRETE (real and specific). COMPLETE (full utility value) and COURTEOUS (soft and polite).

Seeing, thinking, understandings, reading, hearing, body posture, body movement, dressing and silence are ONE WAY communication.

Telling, listening, asking, selling, confrontation, face to face are TWO WAY communication.

Awareness in communicating with oneself. A man is known by his own words. When one communicates he transmits his feelings, attitudes, values, style of functioning, expectations, etc., peaking or writing does not call for extraordinary scholarship. It only calls for efforts and exercise. The idea of communication is no to impress but to express- to be understood well. Be brief. Brevity means precision and to the point.

Speaking and Writing:

Use simple words, short words, popular words, mono syllable words, that are precise in meaning and rich in taste. Clarity improves results, Words compel more than mere numbers. One picture may replace 1000 words. Use one idea in one sentence. Use one topic in one paragraph. One cogent sentence is better than several paragraphs. One illustration is worth several pages of matter.

Grammar is more important than glamour.

Expressions of Avoid:

Insult, to reader, offence to reader, irritation to reader, ambiguity in meaning, tactless messages, threats, circumlocution, padding and meaningless sentence, badly split words and faulty grammar are to be avoided in full.


Express and do not impress. Ambiguity means more than one meaning is possible. It may be accidental, or intended to attract, or deliberate to cheat. Ambiguity is worse than faulty order of words, misplaced adjectives of pronouns or faulty sequence of tenses. Always look for dictionary meaning – never from a thesaurus which gives you synonyms with slight variations in meaning. Use correct spelling. Avoid confusing words, use exact word to mean what you mean.

Public Relations:

You have a social status. People respect you, (It may be different with your staff). You must participate in social functions, clubs, meeting, official gathering. You must develop speaking skills. First you must be a good conversationalist. You must be interested, friendly, cheerful, good-humoured, animated but relaxed, courteous and tactful. Tact means thinking before you speak. Practise at home with family friends and strangers. Look for opportunities to speak out. Make friends with general public and with persons who are highly placed in society and government.

Observe what they read, like and dislike. Listen to them and get hints on their habits. Ask personal questions in general. If people are shy, try to help them. Never argue or challenge them. You may win an argument but lose them permanently. First impression you make on them will have a lasting good impression. Never talk about their private, family affairs or criticise their close friends or relatives. Do not discuss about unpopular books or events or controversial topics, political issues, and faction. Look for the body gestures and expressions and signs. Gracefully leave their company when required.

Group Dynamics & Communication:

Aggregation: Mere collection of people


A number of people who are thought of being together.

A collection of individuals who have certain common qualities.

It is a social unit of two or more members all of whom engage, at some time or other, in interaction with one another. The members are dependent on one another for achieving a common goal.

The members of a group bear a psychological relationship to each other i.e., each member recognises the existence of the other member as an essential part of the group and his behaviour reflects their expections. They influence one another and as they interact, the behaviour of one member will be modified by the actions of the other members.

According to the above definition, a group includes all words, symbols, gestures, which the members use communicate with each other. It includes the mutual and reciprocal influence between two or more members of the group.

The above definition gives 5 outstanding characters of a group in general:

Interaction of communication

Common goals/ purposes

A set of norms

A set of roles


Small group:

A small group is defined as any number of persons engaged in interaction with each other in a single face to face meeting or a series of meeting, in which each member receives some impression or perception of each other member. Usually 20 members are ideal for formation of a small group.

What for?

i. If one wants to affect the interpersonal relations of member

ii. For a need of security, status, and self esteem, affiliation, power etc. For a goal achievement.

iii. To provide a synergy to the organisation (co-operation).

iv. To have a division of labour

v. To resolve conflicts

vi. To complete a huge task in a short time.

vii. To share one’s feelings.

viii. Types of groups:

ix. Formal and informal

x. Committee

xi. Seminar

xii. Panel

xiii. Symposium

xiv. Conference

xv. Convention Forum

xvi. Brainstorming

xvii. Syndicate

xviii. Workshop

Group dynamics:

They are the influencing forces operating in groups that affect the work in a group. It describes various small details in a group.

The following are the factors that influence the group behaviour:

Group cohesiveness:

The degree to which the group is attracted to and motivated to remain as a part of group.

i. Time spent together

ii. Severity of initiation

iii. Group Size

iv. Internal and external threats

v. Previous success

vi. Importance of the need to be together

vii. Homogeneity

viii. Division of labour

ix. Unbiased decisions

x. Nature of communication

xi. Small group ecology -e.g. seating arrangement

xii. Status and respect with respect to power

xiii. Leadership

xiv. Group climate

xv. Conflict resolutions.

Group and its functions:

i. Task functions:

Group and its work

ii. Maintenance functions:

Under-standing each other, resolving conflicts, reinforcement of needs etc.,

iii. Listening functions:

This depends on the acceptability amongst the members, awareness of the feelings of other, not making immediate judgements while listening, purpose and commitment of listening, avoiding distraction, use of words, etc.

Leadership and groups:

Leader is a person recognised as being responsible for guiding the group through their tasks.

What is leadership?

The process of influencing others to take a desired action. Influence is the process of affecting the potential behaviour of others.

Different Leadership styles, and communication:

Authority leadership:

Self styled, highly work oriented, more concerned about the tasks, and less about the people.

Paternalistic leadership:

High work, oriented but has some concern for the people.

Participative leadership:

Likes the members to do their work in their own way, group oriented leaders.

Leadership qualities (functions of a leader):

i. Willingness to accept the responsibilities

ii. Ability

iii. Ability to deal with people and their problems shows what is wrong.

iv. Strong bend towards action

v. Good listeners, good initiator-sees man in worker.

vi. Taps all institutional resources

vii. Builds his own strength-commands respect

viii. Has good rapport

ix. Effective use of power and authority

x. Enough self confidence

xi. Encourages good team work say “We” rather than “I”.

xii. Tirelessly pursue

xiii. Ready to face criticism

xiv. Maintains cool temperature makes work a -makes work a gay

xv. Estimates situation anticipates reaction

xvi. Has flexible strategies

Group and communication:

For sending messages effectively…….

i. Use personal pronouns such as “I” and “my” by which you own your message

ii. Be complete and specific by communicating the frame of reference

iii. Be congruent in your verbal and non-verbal messages

iv. Repeat your message more than once using more than one channel of communication.

v. Seek feedback about the way by which your message is received.

vi. Describe other members behaviour without evaluating and interpreting.

For receiving the messages effectively……

i. Paraphrase accurately and non-evaluatively (restate the words of the sender in your own words)

ii. Describe what you….perceive to be the sender’s feelings.

iii. State your interpretation of the sender’s message

Patterns of communication among group members:

i. Who talks, how often and how long

ii. Who talks to whom

iii. Who sparks off whom and in what ways


i. Purpose is to share knowledge and to get the view of equally knowledgeable people

ii. One person presents a lead paper followed by group discussion.

Panel discussion:

i. Purpose is to provide an interaction amongst the members

ii. Each member speaks on an announted topic.

iii. A panel discussion will be followed by a question-answer session


i. A small group experts discuss different aspects of a problem for the benefit of the audience.

ii. Each speaker makes a prepared speech within the allotted time which is followed by a group discussion among the group members in which the audience also participate.


i. Purpose is to pool experience and opinions.

ii. It is a closed discussion

iii. A large gathering who confer to discuss a particular theme or exchange information or experience.

iv. It should result in a set of recommendations on the central theme.

v. Participants have to register for attending the conference.


i. Fellowship meeting of a closely linked fraternal group

ii. It is usually applied for professional gatherings.


i. Public discussion wherein the audience participate with questions.


i. It is a technique of generating ideas mostly in a problem solving exercise

ii. It accepts any type of suggestion.

iii. It is a group participative technique where in intense interaction takes place even on minute details.


i. It is a more work oriented group discussion with guidance and participating from all members.

ii. It is more skill oriented work.

Listening skills, communicating skills structure:

However good the speaker or the skill he has in transmitting the message, it is effective only in the partnership with a good receiver. Hence listening is most essential feature of a communication process.

Hearing is a natural process which involves picking up catching sound vibrations but listening is a higher cognitive process which is under our control. It is making sense of what we hear. Listening requires paying attention, interpreting, and remembering sound stimuli which we can tune out, at any time, at will.

Important Kinds of Listening:

1. Critical listening:

Lestening with an evaluation skill.

2. Non-directive listening:

Listening that allows the speaker emotionally express himself.

3. Direction listening:

Listener leads the speaker by guiding the limits and direction of the conversation. The directing listener does not just listen; he or she takes control of the situation.

4. Judgemental listening:

Listener reduces personal value judgements into the conversation and offers advice or makes statements regarding right or wrong conduct.

5. Probing listening:

Listener asks lot of questions and inquisitive the point of frustrating the speaker.

6. Soothing listening:

Listener’s behaviour reassures the speaker who believes that conflicts should be avoided at all costs.

7. Deliberative listening:

Listening for getting the content of the message.

8. Empathic listening:

Listening for understanding the feeling context in which the communication takes place. Listener does not get inside the speaker to understand his communication.

9. Active listening:

Listening without passing on judegment, but reflecting back what has been said to indicate the feelings of the speaker have been understood.

The most effective listener is the active listener because this person maintains the role of the true listener. The other types of listener are characterized by their attempts to influence or dominate the speaker.

What do we communicate by listening?

i. The ideas we are interested in him.

ii. Feeling of importance for the message.

iii. Respect for the thoughts of the speaker.

iv. To inform that we are not interested in changing him or evaluating him.

v. We want to understand the speaker

vi. We are ready to accept the problems.

vii. We accept it as a constructive behaviour.

Barrries to active listening:

1. Drifting away from what the speaker says.

2. Counter arguments

3. Complete to impose in dialogue of their own and bigger ancedotes.

4. Filtering that part of the message which they do not readily fir in their frame of reference.

5. Distoring by interpreting in ways that belie the speaker’s intensions.

6. Reacting by letting the person feeling about the speaker.

7. Assuming in the beginning itself that the subject is unimportant and uninteresting.

8. Day-dreaming.

9. Accepting the message which is consistent with their existing behaviour.

10. Allowing emotional words to block the message.

Points for effective/ good listening:

1. Positive thinking

2. Concentration

3. Determination

4. Mental alertness

5. Physical alertness

6. Intensity of communication.

7. Empathy

8. Acceptance

9. Willingness to take the responsibility.

10. Recognising the speaker’s organization of ideas.

11. Relating one’s ideas to our own knowledge.

12. Imaginative projection.

13. Receptive attitude

14. Positive relationship between the listener and the speaker.

15. Time of communication.

16. Up-right posture

17. Positive eye contact

18. Heard-behaviour-giving one’s own experience only and not from other’s experience.

19. Putting the speaker at ease

20. Removal of distractions.

21. Questioning the clarification-Questions beginning with any of the six servants of Kipling, demands that the speaker has done his own thinking and they are What, Who, How, Where, When & Why… The question for clarification have the tendency to unify the parties while the questions for justification on set the parties on opposite sides.

Interpersonal Communication

What it is?

It is the type of communication that takes place between two persons under face to face situations directly.

Sender – Receiver

(Understand that the factors which affect the communication process and the tips for effective communication which we have seen in the earlier sessions will also hold good for the “effective interpersonal communication”). Supportive atmosphere for the interpersonal communication:

i. Evaluation – Description

ii. Control – Problem orientation

iii. Strategy – Spontaneity

iv. Neutrality – Empathy

v. Superiority – Equality

vi. Certainty – Receptivity

Responses that block interpersonal communications:

1. Evaluation responses’, “you should…. ” your duty….”, “You are wrong …”, “you should know better ….” The speaker becomes too defensive.

2. Topping response: Phrases of “one up­manship”. “When I was a child “That is nothing, you should have seen”, “you don’t really mean that ….” , “the problem is that ”

3. Diagonising response: Telling people what they feel or why they feel the way they do. “what you require is …” “you don’t really mean that ….”, “the problem is that ….”

4. Prying-question response: Responses leading to interrogation, “why”, “where”, “when”, “how”, “what” “who”.

5. Warning, admonishing, commanding, response: Produces resentment, resistance, rebellion attitude, “you better keep quite….”, “if you don’t …”, “you have to …”, “you will…”

6. Logical, lecturing responses’. Tends to make the other person inferior or defensive. ‘Don’t you realize ”, “here is where you are wrong….”, “the facts are….”, “yes, but

7. Devaluation response: Applying bandages in the wrong place to soothe the relationship. “It is not so bad …” “don’t worry …”, “you will get over it ….” “oh, you don’t feel that way …

Transactional Analysis:

ÒÀ is a method of analyzing and evaluating the interpersonal communication. It was developed by Dr. Eric Berne. It involves the study of social transactions among the people. It leads to self awareness and better interpersonal relationship through better interpersonal communication.

Every, personality has three parts called PARENT, ADULT, & CHILD EGO STATES. Understand that these terms do not represent the physical age of person.

Parent ego state; Attitudes and behaviour learnt from external sources like sometimes nurturing or sometimes critical. In this state we think, feel and act as our parents did or any authority figure acted when we were small.

There are two ego states in this and they are: Nurturing parent and critical parent.

Nurturing parent…. “Yes, he deserves a lot of praise…”

Critical parent… “What can you expect from these people?”

Adult ego state:

Deals objectively with reality. We gather information, reasoning it out, estimate the probabilities and make decisions. The response from the adult ego state will be analytical.

“What is the annual salary of this job? ….”

Child ego state:

Impulses that naturally come to a child. The responses are usually emotionally charged.

“I wish I could take one day of and watch a cricket match ….”

Complementary transaction: parent- parent, adult – adult, child – child.

Crossed transaction Adult – adult to Parent- child/ adult – adult to child – parent.

Intrapersonal communication:

It is the self communication. It is what goes on inside us we think, feel, value, react, imagine, dream etc. All sensory channels are very important. It depends on the perceptions. It is very important in decision making process for an individual and in an organization.

A good model for self disclosure in JOHRAI WINDOW. It helps to increase self awareness and effectiveness. It helps us to be more open, by allowing fresh thoughts to enter and our own ideas and thoughts to be share with others.

An understanding of this very essential because it helps in good and effective communication in an organization.

Organizational Communication

A. What it is?

i. It is the communication that takes place at various hierachical levels in an organization.

B. Why is it essential?

i. To build up human relations.

ii. To create good working atmosphere.

iii. To make members of organization to understand the objectives policies and problems of organization.

iv. To get opinions, ideas, suggestions and feedback from different hierachical levels.

v. To save labour and money

vi. To avoid wastage

vii. To solve conflicts

viii. To satisfy the human needs of recognition, self development a sense of belonging and sharing of feelings.

C. Flow of communication in an organization:

i. Vertical communication

ii. Downward

iii. Upward

iv. Lateral/ horizontal communication

v. Diagonal communication

vi. Circular communication

vii. Serial transmission

viii. Rumoring

D. Flow of communication in an organization

i. Vertical communication

ii. Downward communication

Regulating and controlling through rules and regulations, norms of behaviour, duties and responsibilities.

E.g.: Motivation

E.g.: Training, instruction and order, advice and counseling, manuals of instruction etc.


E.g. Reports, Requests and Appeals, Representations, Complaints etc.

i. Lateral / horizontal communication

E.g. Conferences, committees, circular, Group discussion etc.,

i. Diagonal communication

ii. Circular communication

iii. Grapevine communication

In a business communication information about Product, Project, Market competition are of crucial importance.

Factors influencing organizational communication:


i. Age

ii. Experience

iii. Secure credibility-safety factor, qualification, dynamism

iv. Receiver’ source relationship

v. Position occupied and power

vi. Capacity to convince

vii. Communication skills

viii. Attitude

ix. Knowledge on the message being communicated


i. Source of message

ii. Nature of message ordered vs disordered, primacy vs recency

iii. Organization of the message

iv. Fear appeals

v. One sided vs two sided communication

vi. Delivery of message- aggressive/ passive/ assertive / persuasive

vii. Perception about the message.


i. Age

ii. Experience

iii. Self esteem

iv. Anxiety

v. Frame of reference

vi. Open/ closed mindeness

vii. Receiver/ source of relationship

viii. Attitude

ix. Cognitive needs


i. Cost of the channel

ii. Availability of the channel

iii. Time available for communication

iv. Knowledge about the use of channel

v. Technical quality of the channel

vi. Uses of senses

Barriers in Communication Semantic Barriers Words and Meanings:

i. Vocabulary

ii. Meaning

iii. Lack of clarity

iv. Nature of message.

v. Language of communication

vi. Structure of the message.

vii. Method of presentation.

viii. Communication skills.

ix. Incongruent verbal/ non-verbal messages.

x. Selective perception

xi. Attitude towards messages.

xii. Metal make up (feelings and emotions)

xiii. Situations of communication

xiv. Improper listening.

xv. Knowledge variations.

xvi. Skill variations.

xvii. Defensiveness

xviii. Cultural incompatibility.

Personal Barriers:

i. Age

ii. Education

iii. Economic status

iv. Sex

v. Experience

vi. Voice

vii. Mannerisms

Organizational Barriers:

i. Hierachial levels

ii. Specialization

iii. Office layout

iv. Pressure to complete a task

v. Lack of responsibility

vi. Failure to use proper media

vii. Egocentism

viii. Red-tapism

ix. Multi layers in administration

x. Duel subordination

Effective communication:

1. Understand people with whom you communicate, their needs, perceptions, feelings, situations and the total personality itself.

2. Trust persons involved in the communication process.

3. Thinking is the basic element of communication process.

4. Be aware that the person with whom you are communicating is equally intelligent

5. Never be in tense while communicating with others.

6. Keep the receiver relaxed.

7. Select appropriate time to communicate appropriate message.

8. Have faith in the message communicated.

9. Communicate in a simple and local language.

10. Be a good and active listener

11. Never pressurize others to accepts your ideas.

12. Control your feeling and emotions while communicating with others.

13. Have a control on your tongue

14. Be open minded

15. Empathize while communicating with others.

16. Avoid physical barriers in communication.

17. Have a smile while taking to others.

18. Break the communication process when not liked by others.

19. Be assertive in thoughts and expressions.

20. Keep away your egoism that might bring personality clashes.

21. Practicing what one preaches increases the source credibility.

22. Beware that romours may boomerang.

23. Stop talking when not essential.

Avoiding pitfalls in communication:

Define the problem


Determine the primary purpose of communication


Formulate the basic language


Tailor the message to the auidence


Establish the connection


Measure the result

Essay on the Farm Management

Scope, Importance and Characters:

The term farm Management consists of two words, ‘Farm’ and ‘Management’. ‘Farm’ is a modified piece of land held or operated as a unit for the production of agricultural products. ‘Management’ means the art of managing the farm. It involves the process of determining how the farm unit shall be organised and operated.

Management performs three unique and vital functions —

(i) Management makes decisions:

To make decision means to decide upon each course of action; to choose wisely among alternatives where such exist.

(ii) Management acts on decisions:

After making decisions, the next step is to act, to work; the farm management selects the production level land technology and practices for products for producing and marketing the farm products. He must find and assemble all resources.

(iii) Management takes Financial:

Responsibility: The financial responsibility involves assembling. Using and maintaining the farm resources.

Farm management is concerned with decision making. The main decisions of agriculture business which will maximise the returns to the resources used in the farm business are;

1. What to produce?

It decides which products to produce and shows the product-product relationship.

2. How to produce?

It relates to choosing the most effective method of producing a given quantity of a particular product. It shows the factor-factor relationship.

3. How much to produce? (Factor- Product-Relationship).

It relates to the problems in converting the several farm resources into the final farm product.

4. Time relationship:

It shows the relationship between the time that farmer makes investment of capital and that later date when this investment returns the physical production.

Scope of Farm Management:

The study of farm management comes under microeconomics. The subject of farm management covers selection, size and appraisal of farm, appraisal of farm resources, investment decisions, enterprise relationships, planning the crops, farm labour and livestock, farm power machinery and equipment, costs returns on individual enterprises, complete budgeting, risk and uncertainty and marketing of farm produce.

Nature of Farm Management:

Farm management is both pure and an applied. It is pure science. It is pure science because it deals with the collection, analysis and explanation of facts and the discovery of principles, it is an applied science because the ascertainment and solution of farm problems are within its scope. The study of farming from the point of view of art would involve a careful examination of the thought, process and skill used by farmers in farming. Thus farm management is both a science and an art.


The limitations of the farm management are:

(i) Small size of farm business:

Due to fragmentation and subdivision of holding the average size of operational holdings is very small.

(ii) Inadequate capital:

It is the most serious problem in agriculture. The farmers do not get adequate and timely financial aid from the institutional agencies.

(iii) Slow adoption of new technology:

The farmers do not get eager to adopt new technology, because it requires heavier inputs such as more fertilizers, timely irrigation, high yielding varieties of seeds and plant protection measures etc.

(iv) Under-employment:

Under-employment reduces efficiency and productivity of rural people. Small size of operational holding, more family labour supply and seasonal nature of agricultural production are the source of the causes of under­employment in farming.

(v) Managerial problems:

The illiterate farmers face difficult problems in managing the farm. Their managerial skill is very poor.

Economic Principles Applied to Farm Management:

The economic principles applied to farm management have been developed directly or indirectly from the fundamental concepts and laws of economics. The economic science plays a very important part in all decisions of farm management. They are applicable to crop production, livestock production, machinery, farm buildings, labour and farm practices and production in general. The most important principles that help the fanners in making the choice and decisions to all phases of farming are:

1. The Law of Diminishing Returns:

It is physical law of fundamental importance in organising and operating the farm business. It is an important guiding factor in farming to decide the level at which a farmer can increase the output. It is practical experience of every farmer that after a certain stage in cultivation, the application of successive doses of labour and capital to a given area of land does not bring about much return as the previous dose. Additional dose of labour and capital applied to the same place gives diminishing returns. This tendency is known as the law of Diminishing Returns. Prof. Marshall has given three conditions which may delay the operation of the law in agriculture.

1. Improvement in the art (technique) of agriculture.

2. Increase in the efficiency or skill of the farmer.

3. Such precious doses of labour and capital applied to land that more than a proportional return is obtained from their increased application. The following table will illustrate principle of diminishing returns.

It is clear from the above table that as the units of inputs is increasing the marginal physical product increases upto 3rd unit of input, after that it becomes constant and from 4th unit the marginal physical product starts decreasing, it becomes negative on 7th unit of input. To find out optimum level of output it is essential to change the physical units of input and output. The economic point will be where marginal revenue and marginal cost are equal. In the above table 5th unit is the optimum level from the economic point of view.

2. Cost Principle:

This principle is of great importance in making decisions of farm business. Cost in general, refers to the expenses incurred on productive services and physical productivities are guided by the cost of various input factors. Mainly cost are of two types.

(i) Fixed Cost:

Fixed costs present farming expenses of an overhead nature and do not change with the output, e.g., interest on fixed capital, depreciation, revenue etc.

(ii) Variable Cost:

It varies with the level of output. It includes changes of hired human labour, seed, fertilizer, irrigation, insecticides and pesticides etc. There are seven costs of production.

(a) Total Variable Cost (TVC):

It is obtained by multiplying the amount of variable input by the price per unit in input.

(b) Average Variable Cost (AVC):

It is computed by dividing total variable costs by the amount of output AVC varies with the level of production.

= TVC / Output

(c) Marginal Cost (MC):

MC is the change in total cost as related to change in output.

= ?ÒÑ / ?Y

The marginal or added cost of each unit of output is important in determining how for we should push producing and how much of the various resources we should use.

(d) Total Fixed Cost:

Total fixed cost shows the sum of expenditures which will be incurred irrespective of the output.

(e) Average Fixed Cost:

It is the sum of total fixed cost and total variable cost.


(g) Average Total Cost:

It is worked out by dividing TC by output.

ÀÒÑ = TC / Output

3. The Law of Comparative Advantage:

The law of comparative advantage helps to explain regional specialization. Farmers tend to produce those items which give more income at a lowest relative cost. With the income, they buy the items needed for production and for living which are produced at lowest relative cost in other areas. In short, specialised and diversified farming are based on this principle.

4. The Law of Equimarginal Returns:

Equi-means ‘equal’ and marginal means additional or incremental. The law states that profit will be greatest if each unit of labour, capital and land is used where it adds the most to the return. The table below illustrates this principle.

Added or Marginal Returns to Capital on Three Enterprises

Marginal returns
Amount of capital used (Rs.)Vegetable and cropsDairyPoultry
Total returns Form Rs. 5000.00605055005250
Net profits1050500250
Average Return/Rs.1211.101.05

In the above table, if we examine average return only, our advice to the farmer would be to produce only vegetable crops.

By investing Rs. 5000 he will get Rs. 1050 as net returns. But let us apply principle of equimarginal return for addition of resources. The farmer should apply Rs. 2000 on vegetable and crop, Rs. 2000 on dairy farming and Rs. 1000 on poultry keeping to get total returns of Rs. 6650 and net returns of Rs. 1650.00.

5. The Law of Substitution:

The principle which helps selection from a number of alternatives is called law of Substitution. According to this law the least cost combination of inputs or practices is obtained when the inputs or practices replaced is equal to the value of the input or the practice added.

Procedure for finding out least cost combination —

1. Computation of Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) by dividing the number of units of the replaced input (x1) by the number of units of added input (x2).

Substitution Ratio = No. of units of replaced input / No. of units of added input

Symbolically it may be expressed as

MRS = ? X1 / ? X2

Where is X1 being replaced by X2.

2. Computation of price ratio by dividing the price of added input (Px2) by the price of the replaced input (Px1).

Thus price Ratio = Price of added input / Price of replaced input

Price Ratio = Px2 / Px1

Where x1 is replaced by x2.

3. Calculation of least cost combination by

equating (MRS) = ?x1/ ?x2 = Px2 / Px1

Farm Planning:


It is a process of making decisions regarding the organisation and operation of a farm business.

Merits of Farm Planning

1. Income Improvements:

Income maximizations could be achieved from a given resources by reorganising present type of production activities as well as introducing changes in technology.

2. Educational Process:

Farm planning is an educational tool to bring about change in the outlook of the cultivators and the extension workers.

3. Desirable Organizational Changes:

Farm planning introduces desirable changes in farm operations and makes a farm a viable unit.

4. To Farmers:

i. It helps him to examine carefully his existing resource situation and past experiences as a basis for decision.

ii. To make rational decisions on what to do.

iii. To find out the credit needs.

iv. To gives him an idea of the expected income after paying off his loans.

Characteristics of a Good Farm Plan:

1. It should provide for efficient use of farm resources such as labour power and equipment.

2. Crop plan should have balanced combination of enterprises.

3. Avoid excessive risks.

4. Provides flexibility.

5. Utilize farmer’s knowledge, training and experience and take account of the farmer’s likes and dislikes.

Farm Budgeting:


Farm budgeting is a method of analysing plans for the use of agricultural resources by the decision maker.

Types of Farm Budgeting:

(a) Partial Budgeting:

Partial Budgeting is a estimation of returns and expenses for a single enterprise or specific part of entire farm unit. e.g. Poultry unit (or) particular crop or one (or) few activities.

i. It used as an aid in full budgeting.

ii. It used to estimate the effects or outcomes of possible adjustments in the farm business before such adjustments are actually made.

(b) Enterprise Budgeting:

i. It is used to estimate input required, costs involved, and expected returns from a particular enterprise.

ii. It is used to aid in selection of inputs and enterprises consistent with the resources available and to show combinations that will increase income from the farm business.

(c) Complete (or) Total Budgeting:

i. It involves estimation of returns and expenses for the entire farm as a single unit. Evaluates all enterprises of the farm i. e., crops, livestock, labour, machinery, buildings, managerial ability to obtain an overall financial picture of a farm.

ii. Process by which the farmer readjusts his resources to his long run objectives and opportunities.

iii. Farmers make both long run and short run or annual budget plans.

Merits of Complete Budgeting:

i. Brings about progressive changes in income.

ii. Takes care of all factors affecting farm income.

Differences between partial budgeting and complete budgeting

Partial Budgeting:

1. It considers a few alternatives.

Complete Budgeting:

1. In considers all alternatives.

2. Do not affect the organization vitally.2. Affects the organization.
3. Easy and simple it requires less time and efforts.3. It requires more time efforts and more data in accurate form.
4. It estimates only the changes in costs and returns associated with variations in organization and operation.4. It involves estimating the results of a particular organisation and operation of a farm.

iii. Resources and enterprises are considered simultaneously.

Steps in Farm Planning and Farm Budgeting

1. Inventory of limited resources:

Prepare a complete list of the farm resources which limit the size of the different farm enterprises.

2. Examine the Existing Farm Planning:

Full information on how each resource is being utilized and what are the outputs obtained from various enterprises adopted on the farm.

3. Locate the Weakness of the Present Plan:

Careful analysis of the resource use in the existing plan will throw up the imbalances. The various weaknesses in the existing plan will act as guidelines for bringing about improvements in the alternative plan.

4. Prepare the alternative plane:

Within the framework of resource restrictions and keeping in view the weakness of the existing plan the alternative plans are developed.

5. Analysis of the alternative plans:

New plans are analysed for costs and returns and the optimum plan which promises the highest returns (to fixed resources) is selected.

6. Implementing the plan:

i. There may be certain difficulties in implementing the plan, unless all the problems are properly anticipated.

ii. Good plan must provide for flexibility.

Types and Systems of Farming:

Based on factors like crop and live stock raising and mode of social and economic planning, farming is classified into.

I. Types of Farming:

When farms in a group are similar in the kinds and proportion of the crops and live stock that are produced and methods and practices followed in production.

II. Systems of Farming:

Combination of products on a given farm and the methods or practices that are used in the production of the product.

I. Types of Farming:

1. Specilised Farming:

50% or more of income derived from single source. In these areas where special market outlets and fairly uniform economic conditions for a long period are present.

2. Diversified Farming:

No single product source income equals as much as 50% of the total Receipts. Farmers depend on several sources of income.

3. Mixed Farming:

Combination of crop production with particular amount of livestock raising.

4. Ranching:

Livestock grazes on natural vegetation and multiply under natural surroundings. Ranch land not used for cultivation.

5. Dry Farming:

Dry areas with less than 20 inch rainfall dry farming is practised. No irrigation is provided. Farming predominantly rainfed.

II. Systems of the Farming:

1. Co-operative Farming:

All or part of agricultural operations carried out jointly by the farmers on a voluntary basis. Farmer retains the right of his own land. Lind would be treated as one unit after pooling their land, labour and capital.

2. Collective Farming:

Members surrender their land and livestock to the society. Members work together under management committee elected by themselves. Committee directs matters of allocation of work, distribution of income.

3. Capital Farming:

Based on capitalistic methods. In India practised in commercialised agriculture areas where farm production is profit and market oriented.

4. State Farming:

Farms managed by government officials. Workers paid weekly or monthly based wages. In India all state farms are governed by State Farm Corporation.

5. Peasant Farming:

Agriculture practices followed in their own way. Entire farm family making and executing the decisions of farming programme.

Useful Notes on the Properties of Soil

2. Soil Structure

3. Density of soil

4. Porosity of soil

5. Soil Temperature

6. Soil colour

7. Soil water

8. Soil air


1. Soil Colloids

2. Soil Reaction

3. Soil Organic Matters

4. Soil Acidity

5. Soil Alkalinity

6. Neutrality


1. Soil Consistency

2. Soil Compactions

3. Soil Strength

4. Soil crusting


1. Macro-organisms

2. Micro-organisms

Important Properties

Soil Texture:

Can’t be changed/altered.

1. Definition: It is the relative percentage of sand silt and clay in a soil.

2. Fundamental groups of textural classes

i. Sands: > 70% sand separate

ii. Loams: Intermediate

iii. Clays: > 35% clay separate

3. Determination of textural class

i. Feel Method

ii. Laboratory Method (By USDA, based on the mechanical analysis)

4. Important of soil texture

i. State of Hydration and Exchangeable cations

ii. Deflocculation Na

iii. Flocculation Ca2+, Al3+

iv. Range of Workability

v. Heavy Soils

vi. Light Soils

Soil Structure:

Can be changed/altered.

1. Definition: The mutual arrangement, orientation and organisation of particles in the soil.

2. Types of structure;

3. Classes

i. Very fine

ii. Medium

iii. Very coarse

iv. Fine

v. Coarse

4. Grades

i. Structure less

ii. Moderate

iii. Break

iv. Strong

5. Factors affecting soil structure

(a) Climate

(b) Organic matter

(c) Adsorbed

(d) Tillage

(e) Types of vegetation

(f) Plant roots

(g) Soil organisms

(h) Crop rotation Cations

(i) Alternate wetting and drying

Density of Soil:

1. Definition: Weight per unit volume of a substance.

2. Types of Measurement

i. Bulk Density

ii. Particle Density

(A) Particle density/True density:

1. Definition: The weight per unit volume of the solid portion of soil.

2 Pd = Mass of solids / Volume of solids

3. Unit: gm/cc.

4. Characteristics:

i. Depends on density of individual inorganic and organic constituents of soil.

ii. Particle density decrease with increase in organic matter.

iii. For normal soil particle density is 2.65 g/cc.

(B) Bulk Density:

1. Definition: The mass per unit volume of a dry soil.

2. BD = Weight of soil mass / Soil volume

3. Unit: g/cc

4. Characteristics:

1. Bulk density always smaller than particle density

2. Low Bulk density favourable physical condition.

3. Ideal Bulk density is 1.2 – 1.4 g/cc.

5. Factors affecting: Amount of pore space. Compactness of soil, texture, structure, organic matter.

Porosity of Soil:

1. Definition: The percentage of soil volume occupied by pore space.

2. Types of pore-space


i. Large sized pores

ii. Found in between granules

iii. Sandy soils Micro/Capillary Pores

iv. Small sized pores

v. Found within granules

vi. Clayey soils.

Soil Colour:

1. Kinds of soil colour

i. Lithochromic: from Parent Material e.g. Red Soil from Red Sandstone

ii. Pedochromic: during soil formation e.g. Red soils from granite.

Factors affecting soil colour —

i. Oxidation: Reduction.

ii. Alternate wetting and Drying.

iii. Iron compounds

iv. Silica lime and salts.

Soil Temperature:

1. Sources of soil heat:

i. Solar radiation

ii. Bio-chemical reactions

iii. Conduction

iv. Precipitation, Exposure, vegetation

2. Loss of soil heat:

i. Radiation

ii. Conduction

iii. Evaporation

iv. Precipitation

3. Importance on plant growth and Nutrition:

(i) Germination of seeds

(ii) Soil structure

(iii) Decomposition of organic matter in soil.

(iv) Absorption of water

(v) Availability of Nutrients

4. Management of soil temperature

(i) By regulating the amount of water

a. Drain

b. Add

(ii) The colour of surface soil

a. Black: High temp.

b. White: Low temp.

(iii) By providing different types of mulches on the soil surface.

Soil Water:

It is a regular of physical chemical and biological activities in soil.

Soil Air:

1. Definition: The exchange of CO2 and O2 gases between soil pore space and atmosphere.

2. Types of pores:

a. Inter crumb pores – between crumbs

b. Crumb pores – pores within crumbs.

3. Reasons for poor Aeration:

i. Excess soil moisture

ii. Gaseous exchange

iii. Water logged conditions

iv. Saturated soil conditions

4. Mechanisms of exchange of gases

(i) Mass flow – due to pressure differences between atmosphere and soil air.

(ii) Diffusion – Molecular transfer of gases.

5. Importance of soil Air in plant growth and biological Activity in soil

(i) Growth of plants

(ii) Development of plant

(iii) Adaptations of plant

(iv) Microbial population and activity

(v) Production of Toxic substances.

(vi) Absorption of water and Nutrients.

Essay on Integrated Plant Nutrient Management


i. To maintain soil fertility.

ii. Sustainable agriculture production.

iii. Improve farmer’s profit.

iv. Increase availability of nutrient from all resources.

v. Match demand and supply.

vi. Minimising loss of nutrients.

vii. Key principle: Balanced fertilizer.

viii. Aim of balanced fertilizer.

ix. Increase crop yield.

x. Increase farm income.


1. Chemicals:

Urea, DAP to supply nitrogen, superphosphate and rock phosphate supply phosphorus, murate of potash and sulphate of potash supply potash. There are various complex fertilizers to supply combination of nutrients. Similarly there are many chemical compounds which supply various macro and micro nutrients in isolation or in combination.

2. Organic matter:

Farmyard manure, vermicompost, oil cakes of different oilseeds like castor, neem etc. Incorporation of organic residues of proceeding crop in the fields, if time and soil conditions permit also serves as a source of organic nutrients for the succeeding crop.

3. Biological:

(a) Green manures: cowpea, sunhemp, sesbania, etc. and green leaf manures like subabul, etc.

(b) Biofertilizers


i. Nutrients are easily and quickly available for the plants.

ii. Good for maintaining soil health

iii. Good for supplying micronutrient

iv. All sources can be generated on farm itself.

v. It have advantage of being diversified into small units to meet the demands of the specific problems of location.

vi. Quality and shelf life of food products are increased.


i. Excessive use of fertilizers leads to imbalance in the soil pH.

ii. Most of the chemical fertilizers are high energy consuming.

iii. Chemical fertilizers pollute the environment.

iv. Organic sources are bulk in nature, low in nutrient content.

v. Organic manures are having high C: N ratio and not properly composed can lead to temporary deficiency.

Nitrogen Losses:

Nitrogen is a important macro nutrient for crop plants, which will be taken by the plants form soils.

This nutrient released in soils either by weathering or by decomposition of organic matter or by addition of fertilizers, induce N2 losses from soils.

N2 Losses:

1. Leaching of loss/drainage loss of NO3 Depends on:


N2 Mobile for leaching loss Region: Humid region N2 loss is high than arid region.

Soil Type:

High loss in sandy soil than loam/clay.

Land Nature:

More loss in barren soil than crop covered land.

2. Run of loss like of NO–3.

3. Gaseous losses:

Takes place three ways:

(a) Volatilization/Non-biological loss of NH3:


Volatilization is a gaseous loss of N in which inorganic N ions can be converted to gas and lost to the atmosphere.

Causes for Volatilization —

i. Poor drainage: Volatilization occur in poorly drained soil, (e.g.) rice.

ii. Alkaline pH: Volatilization occurs in soil pH > 7.5.

iii. Soil pH coupled with form of fertilizer applied:

Acidic soil + NH+4 Fertilizer (Amm. Fertilizer) > No Volatilization (because soil pH don’t increase)

Acid soil + Urea (NH4 Forming Fertilizer) > Volatilization (because soil pH increase)

[Acid soil + 2H2O+ + CO (NH2)2 > 2 NH+4 + HCO–3 NH4 > NH3^ (Volatilization)]

(b) Chemical Decomposition of NO–2 under acid condition.

(i) Decomposition of NH4 NO2

NH4 NO2 > 2 H2O + N2 ^

(ii) Van slyke reaction

R – NH2 + HNO2 > R-OH + H2O + N2^

(iii) Spontaneous decomposition of Nitrous acid.

3 HNO2 > H2O + 2 NO ^

NO + Î > NO2 ^

2 2HNO2 > NO + NO2 ^ + H2O

(c) Microbial Denitrification: Liberation of N2 and N2O.

i. Denitrification: Nitrates are subjected to reduction in soils especially in those that are poorly drained or water logged and low in aeration with the help of micro organisms (or) Biological reduction of NO3 to NO2.

ii. Micro organism involved

a. Pseudomonas denitrijicans

b. Thiobacillus denitrificans

iii. Process of denitrification in Soil:

2NO–3 Nitrate > -2 (0) 2N02 (Nitrate) > 2NO (Nitric oxide) >

N2O (Nitrous oxide) > N2 ^ (Eliminated)

Microganism removes O2 act on e acceptor.

i. Example: Rice ecosystem.

Causes of Denitrification —

i. Water logged condition/anaerobic condition.

Significance of N2 Losses:

1. It maintains the N balances of N cycle.

2. N released during denitrification fixed by biological N fixation, makes available to plants.

3. In ecological point of view, leaching of NO3 causes eutrophication, but denitrification prevents this eutrophication.

Way to Compensation:

1. In case of leaching in alkali soil, add 25%, more N2.

2. Denitrification can be reduced by addition of P04 residues.

3. Adequate drainage

Problems by N2 Losses:

i. Eutrophication

ii. Atmospheric pollution

Fertilizers Use Efficiency (FUE):

What percentage of an applied fertilizer nutrient is utilized by the crops cropping system. This is termed as FUE.

Measures of FUE:

It can be measured by the percentage of added fertilizer nutrient recovered by the harvested portion of a crop (or) kgms of economic produce per kg of nutrient applied.

Problems of ‘N’ fertilizer – Leaching and volatilization.

Problems of ‘P’ fertilizer – Fixation, immobility and transformation.

Nitrogen Use Efficiency:

i. Mainly determined by various kinds of losses in the field, viz. volatilization in the form of ammonia, leaching and runoff, denitrification.

ii. N fertilizers are amide and ammoniacal forms.

iii. Converted into nitrate form, it becomes very much susceptible to loss by leaching with irrigation rain water

iv. Application of nitrogen fertilizer in split doses or as top dressing increases the efficiency of nitrogen use

v. The NH4+ ions in ammonical fertilizers are adsorbed the soil clay. They may be utilised directly by certain crops e.g. rice, else they are transformed into nitrates by microbes and taken in this form.

vi. Higher the clay content of the soil and its exchange capacity the better is nitrogen use efficiency.

Urea Transformation in soil:

Factors Determine Nutrient Uptake:

i. Crops, nature of root system

ii. Water

iii. Texture and pH soil

iv. Management practices (land preparation, choice of variety, timely sowing, optimum plant population, timely weed control, weed management, plant protection and balanced supply of essential plant nutrients)

v. Agro climatic conditions

Practices to increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency:

i. Split application > apply ‘N’ in 2 or 3 installments to coincide with the peak period of nitrogen requirement of the crop.

ii. Sub surface application

iii. Pelleting with soil

iv. Incubation of urea with moist soil (1:6) for 2 or 3 days, resulting in the adsorption by soil clays of ammonia formed by the hydrolysis of urea.

Increase Efficiency through Slow Release Nitrogenous Fertilizers:

1. Urea aldehyde condensation products e.g. urea form, oxamide, isobutytidene diurea

2. Urea coated with sulphur, lac and neem. The coating is form a temporary barrier between urea granules and soil or soil water, thus reducing the rate of urea hydrolysis.

3. Blend Nitrogen fertilizer with a nitrification inhibitors:

i. Non toxic to plants, soil micro­organisms, animal and fish.

ii. Block the conversion of NH4 >NO3 by inhibiting Nitrosomonas activity.

iii. Not interfere with the transformation NO2 (nitrite) by nitrobactors.

iv. Be able to move with the fertilizer so that it will be distributed uniformly throughout the soil zone contacted by nitrogen fertilizer.

v. Stable and long time inhibitory action

vi. Relatively inexpensive, so that it can be used as commercial basis. e.g. Nitrapyrin.

4. Judicious mix of manures and fertilizers.

5. Placement of urea super granules, made up of ordinary granules below the soil surface has been found to increase, to varying extent the NUE with regard to rice crop.

Phosphorous use Efficiency:

i. Fixation of phosphate is main problem.

ii. Water soluble phosphatic fertilizer after application to the soil react preferably with Fe and Al to form initial phosphate reaction products.

iii. Ca, mg carbonates, pH and water status of the soil control the nature of the reaction products.

iv. Efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers depends primarily upon the release of ‘P’ from the products rather than the fertilizer.

v. Reaction products vary in their ability to release ‘P’.

Measure to Increase Efficiency:

i. Minimum contact of the fertilizer with the soil to restrict phosphate fixation.

ii. Rise pH of acid soil by liming.

iii. Liming, deep placement and combined use of super phosphate and organic manures to increase the PUE.

iv. Rice to increase PUE > surface broadcast, followed by mixing during puddling.

v. Wheat – Phosphate placement applied in seed furrow or drilling by just below the seeds.

vi. Crop rotation – to utilise ‘P’ direct as well as residual effect. Gram + rice rotation.

vii. In India application of ‘P’ Fertilizer with organic matter is beneficial. This increase the crop response and decrease fixation.

viii. Better utilisation of ‘P’ in acid soil mixed with Farm Yard manure.

ix. Sun hemp – Application of phosphate before ploughing best method to improve soil fertility.

x. Crop may not use > 10% of ‘P’ if applied broad cast upto 30% efficiency when applied as concentrated band along the plant row.

xi. Clay soil have greater phosphate fixing capacity than sandy soil.

Potassium Use Efficiency:

All potassium fertilizer are water soluble. Different ‘k’ fertilizer consist of ‘k’ in combination with chloride, sulphate, nitrate.

Both chloride and sulphate of ê are soluble in water and on application to the soil then ionizes into k+, Cl– and SO42- ions. The released k+ ion from the fertilizer gets adsorbed on the soil colloids and also available to the plant through cation exchange reactions.

Nutrient Fixation:

The process where by readily soluble plant nutrients are changed into less soluble form by reaction with inorganic or organic compounds of the soil restricting their mobility in the soil and thereby suffer a decrease in their availability to the plants.

Two kinds of fixation.

Cation fixation: N, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn

Anion fixation: P, B, Mo

Phosphorous Fixation in the Soil:

Phosphorous was fixed in the soil by the 3 general types of reactions.

1. Adsorption

2. Isomorphous replacement

3. Double Decomposition

(i) Adsorption:

(a) Physical Adsorption

(b) Chemical Adsorption

In Physical Adsorption phosphate is held in the soil solid surface and Chemical Adsorption phosphate penetrate more or less uniformly into the soil surface.

Adsorption of ‘P’ takes place on –

i. On the surface of constant charge – crystalline clay minerals through cations.

ii. On the surface of variable charges like Fe3+, Al oxides, organic matter.

iii. On the surface of kaolinite and Allophanes which have pH dependent charges on their crystal edges and surfaces.

iv. On the surface of organic matter which have pH dependent cations on their surface.

(ii) Isomorphous Replacement Reaction:

Phosphate is fixed by the Hydroxyl (OH–) and silicate ions through attached to silicon and Al and are liable to either dissociate to give (Si, Al)+ + OH– (or), accept a proton (H+ ion) and give rise to positively.

Charged clay, which then take part in the anion exchange with P04

(Si, Al) – OH > – (Si, Al) + + OH–

(Si, Al) – OH + H+ > (Si, Al) – OH+2

Another important mechanism for the phosphate fixation is a certain amount of silicate released from the tetrahedron.

But reaction of Fe, Al Hydroxides with the phosphate ions are the most significant for phosphate fixation in soils.

(iii) Double Decomposition Reaction:

This fixation (precipitation) is largely depend upon the pH of the system.

This phosphate fixation can be divided into two categories:

i. Reaction involving Fe and Al – here P fixation can be reduced with increase in pH.

ii. Reaction involving Ca (ÎÍ) 2 /Ñà CO3 – here P fixation can be increased by increasing pH.

Factors Affecting Phosphate Fixation:

1. Nature and amount of Soil components

a. Hydrous oxides of Fe, Al

b. Type of clay

c. Amount of clay

d. Calcium carbonates

2. pH

3. Other ions

4. Organic matter

5. Temperature

6. Over liming.

Nitrogen Mineralisation Immobilization:

Nitrogen Mineralisation:

It is a process of conversion of organic nitrogen to ammonia, which involves two reactions viz. aminization and ammonification.


It is nothing but the process which converts the proteins into amimoacids and amines by the action of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi. Bacteria in alkaline and neutral soils. While fungi dominates in acid soils.

Proteins > Amino acids + Amines + urea + Energy


Here amines and amino acids are decomposed by other heterotrophs, there by releasing ammonia.

Fate of Ammonia:

i. It may be converted to NO–2 and NO-3 nitrification.

ii. Absorbed directly by higher plants.

iii. May be fixed in a biologically unavailable form.

iv. May be slowly released back to the atmosphere as N2.

‘N’ Immobilization:

It is the conversion of inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen and it is basically the reverse of nitrogen mineralisation. If decomposing organic matter contains low ‘N’ relative to ‘c’ microorganisms will immobilize inorganic nitrogen in the soil. Soil micro organism compete very effectively with plants for inorganic nitrogen during immobilization and plants may become readily deficient in nitrogen. For this nitrogen fertilizers are applied to compensate for immobilization and crop requirements.

Essay on Soil Fertility and Productivity

Soil productivity:

The capability of soil to produce specified crop yield under well defined and specified systems of management of inputs and environmental conditions.

Factors Governing Soil Fertility:

Parent material:

Fertility of a soil depends on the chemical composition of parent material from which it derived.


Soils on the upper slope are less fertile than the soils on lower slope because high leaching and erosion on upper slope.


In tropical climate decomposition of organic matter is faster than temperate climate. Thus soils of tropical regions are less fertile when compared to temperate region.

Depth of Soil Profile:

Deep soils are more fertile than the shallow soils and the roots are spread well enough in deep soils than the shallow soils.

Physical Condition of Soil:

The soil texture and soil structure influence the soil fertility.

Artificial Factors:

i. Water logging

ii. Cropping system

iii. Toxic chemicals and pesticides in the soil.

Difference between Soil Fertility and Productivity:

Soil FertilitySoil Productivity
1. It is an index of available nutrient to plants1. It is used to indicate crop yields.
2. Influenced by the physical, chemical and biological factors of the soil.2. Depends upon fertility and location.
3. It is the function of available nutrients of the soil.3. It is the function of soil fertility, management and climate.
4. All fertile soils are not productive.4. All productive soils are fertile.
5. It is an inherent property of the soil.5. It is not the inherent property of the soil.

Soil Fertility Evaluation:

It is the assessment of nutrient supplying capacity of the soil.

Soil Fertility Evaluation:

It is assessment of nutrient supplying capacity of the soil

I. A. Biological Methods (using higher plants as indicator):

1. Field Trials:

Direct way to assess the nutrient status in soil.

i. Trials with graded doses of nutrients will determine the exact requirement.

ii. The effect is very much location specific.

iii. Expensive and time consuming and growth condition can’t be fully controlled.

2. Pot Culture Methods:

i. Same as field trials except that plants grown in pots with small volume of soil or under controlled field condition like greenhouse.

ii. Limitations Preferential root growth Limited volume of soil Problems during packing of soil.

3. Neubauer Seedling Method:

i. Soil is exhausted of the available nutrients and entire plant is then analysed for the uptake.

II. B. Biological Methods (using Micro organism as indicator):

1. Aspergillus Niger Method:

i. For P, K and Mg in soils.

ii. The amount of ‘k’ extracted in mycelium compares favourably with the content of exchangeable ‘k’ in soil under investigation.

2. Soil Plaque Method:

By sockett and stewart for study of mineral deficiencies in soil.

i. If soil is deficient in ‘k’ or ‘p’ or both, the calories of the Azotobactor will not develop.

ii. The intensity of growth of calories indicates the degree of deficiency.

3. Visual Symptoms:

i. Indicator plants

ii. Hidden hunger.

III. Plant Analysis Method:

1. Total Elemental Analysis:

i. Leaf Analysis widely used.

ii. Approach

Visual Symptoms



Critical nutrient level (CNL)

‘CNL’ is a range of concentration at which growth of plants is restricted in comparison with that of plant at a higher nutrient level.

2. Plant Tissue Tests/Rapid Chemical Analysis.

i. The conductive tissue consisting un assimilate nutrients in sap or extracts are analysed.

ii. N, P and Ê have been tested by this technique.

IV. Soil Analysis:

1. Chemical Methods:

(a) Phosphorous – Olsen’s method,

(b) Micro nutrient – Chelate DTPA

(b) Gypsum requirement – Schoonover’s method

2. Tracer Technique:

i. The plants of few supplied the phosphatic fertilizers with P.

ii. The harvested plants tested for total ‘P’ as well as 32P.

A = Â (1 –Y / Y)

Where, A – available ‘P’ in soil

 – Amount of fertilizer ‘P’

Y – Fraction of ‘P’ in plant desired from fertilizer ‘P’

(1 – Y) – Fraction desired from soil.

Land Capability Classification:

Evaluation of land for land use planning is a consequent step following the soil survey and mapping process. In the recent years, it has been popularised in almost every land development programme. The system of land capability classification requires that every acre of land be used in accordance with its capability and limitations. The land capability classification is a broad grouping of soils based on their limitations and also serves as a guide to assess suitability of the land for cultivation, grazing and forest plantation.

The land capability classification scheme developed by soil conservation service. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).The classification scheme has four categories namely land suitability class, land capability classes (comprising eight classes). Land capability subclass and land capability units.

Essay on the Classification and Genesis of Soil

a. Red loam

b. Red sandy soil (Fe++)

2. Laterite soil

a. Low level (leaching)

b. High level

3. Black soil

a. Shallow black

b. Medium black

c. Deep black soil

4. Alluvial soil

a. Coastal alluvium

b. Coastal sand

c. Deltaic alluvium

5. Desert soil

6. Tarai soil

7. Hill soil (brown)

8. Saline and Alkali soil

9. Peaty soils

1. Red Soil:

Tamil Nadu, a part of A.P, M.P, Orissa, Bihar, U.P., W.B., Rajasthan

a. Fe++

b. Porosity is high

c. Leaching (principle)

d. Less in N2 and P205

(a) Red loam

a. Derivative form weathering of granites,gneiss

b. Rich in clay mineral and poorer in silicon

c. Texture of the soils loam to silt and clayloam

d. PH is neutral but slightly acidic.

(b) Red sandy soil

a. Derived from granites, gneiss quartzite and sandstone

b. Colour red hematite or yellow

c. CEC 5 to 20 mg

d. pH acidic (4.5 – 6.5)

2. Laterite Soil:

Maharashtra, Kerala, M.P, Orissa and U.P etc

i. They exhibit plasticity, cohesion, shrinkage and expansion.

ii. CEC 2 to 4 mg/l00g of soil, poor water retention High organic matter poor in lime and Mg, deficient in P and K.

pH 5-6.

3. Black Soil:

Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Rajasthan, U.P, A. P., Tamil Nadu, Karnataka

i. Clay % of 40 – 60 %

ii. Clay – montmorlionite.

iii. PH – 7.5 to 8.5

Shallow black soil: (depth – 30 cm)

i. Texture – silt loam to clay lime is usually present in fine grains

ii. Dark brown to dark yellow

iii. Structure is granular, blocky Medium black soil: (30 to 100cm)

iv. Basaltic traps, Dharwar, Schists, basic granite, gneisses, hornblend.

v. Moderately rich in organic matter and well drained

vi. Gypsum is available in upper surface.

Deep black soil:

i. Derived from basalt

ii. % of clay – 40 to 60 %

iii. Lime is present in irregular nodules

iv. Alkaline

v. Clay minerals

4. Alluvial soil (T ^ k vN ? P2O5):

Rajasthan, U.P., Bihar, W.B., Gujarat, Assam, Orissa

Mainly formed deposition of silt over ages,

i. High K less in N and P2O5

(a) Coastal alluvium:

i. Structure – sand and silt, deep reddish brown to yellowish brown grey

ii. Derived from calcareous materials

iii. It is mainly for agriculture

(b) Coastal sands:

i. Lack of profile development.

ii. Salinity is high.

(c) Delatic Alluvium:

i. It is formed by river deposition.

Soil Process and Formation:

Soil Formation is a process of two distinct phases.

I. Weathering of Rocks and Minerals (Destructive Process)

II. Development of True Soil (Constructive Process)

I. Weathering:

Process & transformation of solid rocks into soil

Five Stage of Soil Development:

Essay on the Organic Farming

i. Recycling farm wastes and residue to the native soil itself.

ii. Replenishing the nutrients depleted from the soil during crop growth.

iii. Encouraging the growth of soil micro­organisms which could regulate phased release of stored nutrients in the soil to the crop growth in right proportion.

iv. Maintaining soil health by balancing the soil moisture and soil aeration.

v. Ensuring soil fertility by firmly binding the nutrient elements in the complex organic molecular.

Harmful effects of agricultural chemicals:

i. Residual toxicity is the major problem of agricultural chemicals. Many of the chemicals that are toxic to pests, are toxic to humans also and their admixture in the food may cause nerve and bone malformation in addition to blood clotting.

ii. Unlike the slow release of nitrogen from organic source, the chemical fertilizers like urea release nitrogen to the crops, abundantly within a short span of time and the excess ammonia can cause infant disease-methemoglobinemia. Even animals feeding on fodder supplied with excess urea can experience hair fall and skin disease.

iii. Amines produced due to high intake of chemical nitrogen may cause carcinogenic effects on human beings.

iv. Most of the pesticides and herbicides are nerve and respiratory poisons apart from upsetting Gastro-intestinal system of human beings. If these chemicals are not denatured before the food is being used for consumption, they are prone to affect human beings.

v. The chemicals can also pollute the drinking water supply and cause bone abnormalities.

vi. The fumes emanated from the applied chemicals and fertilizers will cause bronchial asthma to the persons living nearby.

vii. Cotton garments produced from the cotton obtained from chemicals used fields cause skin lesions and irritations.

viii. Industries producing these chemicals and fertilizers pollute the atmosphere by releasing toxic fumes which are bound to affect the ozone cover.

How Organic farming is done?

Composting of farm wastes and industrial wastes raising green manures as inter crops and insitu incorporation in the soil, biodegrading organic wastes such as coirpith, as a source of organic manure are some of the practical approaches for organic farming.

i. Micro-organisms such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Blue Green Algae, Azolla mycorhiza have ability to mobilize non- usable nutrients such as atmospheric nitrogen into usable form. Such biofertilizers will enrich the soil fertility.

ii. Vermicompost has gained popularity recently which refers to the compost prepared by earth worms. The symbiotic relationship between the plant and the soil born organisms, is an ecofriendly approach.

iii. The pests and diseases, affecting a crop must be checked by using biocontrol agents instead of chemical pesticides and fungicides. The wonder tree of Indian origin, neem has drawn the global attention for its pesticidal properties.

iv. The pests and diseases, affecting a crop must be checked by using biocontrol agents instead of chemical pesticides and fungicides. The wonder tree of Indian origin, neem has drawn the global attention for its pesticidal properties.

v. Use of nuclear poly hedrosis virus (NPV), Bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis in biocontrol have gained popularity recently. Release of egg parasities trichogramma species to control certain types of pests is another biocontrol method.

vi. Sex pheromones are used to attract major pests and they are trapped in light traps.

Advantage of organic farming:

i. Organic manure produce optimal conditions in the soil for high yields and good quality crops.

ii. They supply all the nutrients required by the plant (NPK, secondary) and micronutrients).

iii. They improve plant growth and physiological activities of plants.

iv. They improve the soil physical properties such as granulation and good tilth, giving good aeration, easy root penetration and improve’s water holding capacity. The fibrous portion of the organic matter with its high carbon content promotes soil aggregation to improve the permeability and aeration of clay soils while its ability to absorb moisture helps in the granulation of sandy soils and improves their water holding capacity. The carbon in the organic matter is the source of energy for microbes, which help inaggregation.

v. They improve the soil chemical properties such as supply and retention of soil nutrients and promote favourable chemical reactions.

vi. They reduce the need for purchased inputs.

vii. Most of the organic manures are wastes or by products which on accumulation may lead to pollution. By way of utilizing them for organic farming, pollution is minimized.

viii. Organic fertilizers are considered as complete plant food. Organic matter restores the pH of the soil which may become acid due to continuous application of chemical fertilizers.

ix. Organically grown crops are believed to provide more healthy and nutritionally superior food for man than those growth with commercial fertilizers.

x. Organically grown plants are more resistant to disease and insects and hence only a few chemical sprays or other protective treatments are required.

xi. There is an increasing consumer demand for agricultural products, which are free of toxic chemical residues. In developed countries consumers are willing to pay more for organic foods.

xii. Organic farming helps to avoid chain reaction in the environment form chemical sprays and dusts.

xiii. Organic farming helps to prevent environmental degradation and can be used to regenerate degraded areas.

xiv. Since the basic aim is diversification of crops, much more secure income can be obtained than when they rely on only one crop or enterprise.

Essay on Shifting Cultivation in India

Other names: Land rotation, juming (North Eastern region) podu (A. P & Orissa)

Shifting Cultivation in India:

1. N. E hill region

2. Andhra Pradesh

3. Madhya Pradesh

4. Orissa

5. Bihar

6. Karnataka


1. Cropping is done for few years on same Unit of land, after clearing and burning.

2. Depletion of soil productivity causes cultivator move to other area for cultivating same crop.

3. Here crop is fixed burnt land is rotated

4. It causes soil erosion

5. Less productivity

6. Seldom use of manures and fertilizers

7. The size of plot from 1.0 to 2.5 ha per family having members 3-5


1. Faulty land use (social evil)

2. Primitive method of cultivation (less productivity)

3. Change in soil microbial population

4. Loss nutrient through leaching, run off and percolation

5. Ñ: N ratio reduced

6. Causes flood in adjoining area

7. Affect the flora and fauna

Ways for improving degraded areas:

i. Efficient land use management

ii. Preventing loss of soil fertility by making contour bunds, levelling, terracing and good drainage system.

iii. Soil management by growing cover crop, strip crops, mixed crop and erosion checking crops.

iv. Adoption of production based crop management by growing HYV, weed and water management, fertilizer application and plant protection.

v. Problems created by this can easily be overcome by adoption of suitable agro forestry models.

944 Words Essay on Plant Breeders’ Rights

PBRs are specialized patent like system for cultivated plants. PBRs are one of the most recent forms of Intellectual Property Law. The policy basis for PBR is the same as for patent, design and copyright laws. Features of PBR

1. PBRs are specialized plant like system for cultivated plant species.

2. PBRs constitute one of the recent forms of Intellectual Property Law.

3. PBRs provide legal rights to a plant breeder to get benefit of his/her innovation or variety.

4. PBRs differ from patents in the sense that the former allow farmers privilege and research exemption. Farmers’ privilege is the right to hold material as seed source for subsequent seasons. The research exemption refers to the right to use protected material as the basis to develop a new variety or other research use. Patents donot provide such exemptions. Research exemption is also called breeders’ privilege.

5. PBRs protect the variety but not the standard breeding procedures that are used for development of a variety.

6. PBRs are generally considered to provide less protection than patents.

7. Laws related to PBRs were first framed in 1961 by the union for the protection of new plant varieties (UPOV) which were further revised in 1972, 1978 and 1991 UPOV conventions were held in Geneva.

Main Features of UPOV:

The first UPOV convention was held and signed in Paris in 1961, but it came into force in 1968 with its headquarters at Geneva. Since then many changes have taken place in UPOV, because it was revised in 1972, 1978 and 1991. The 1978 Act came into force in 1981 and the Act 1991 has not yet come into force. The main features of UPOV are briefly presented below:

1. Material to be protected:

A protection right can be granted for varieties of all botanical genera and species. In other words, all new varieties, of cultivated species are protected under. Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR). The new variety must have a designation (name) as per the rules of International code of nomenclature.

2. Rights provided:

UPOV provides legal rights to the original plant breeder or owner of a variety for commercial production, marketing and export of his variety. Thus original breeder gets benefit of his intellectual property or his invention.

3. Basic Requirements:

There are four basic requirements for protection of a variety under PBR. These are : (1) novelty, (2) distinctness, (3) uniformity and (4) stability. The last three criteria were given by UPOV 1978 convention and the first criteria i.e., novelty was added in UPOV convention 1991. Novelty refers to newness of a variety’. The variety should be new one and it should not have been commercially cultivated for more than one year before granting protection under PBR. The second criteria is distinctness.

The new variety must be distinguishable in one or more morphological, quality or other characters from previously available varieties. Thirdly, the variety should be uniform (homogeneous). In other words the variety should be pure and look uniform. Lastly, the variety must give stable performance in different generations. These four attributes are determined by grow out test.

4. Power of Authorization:

The holder of PBR has power of authorization. He can authorise any other person for commercial production, marketing, export and import of his variety. Prior authorization of a breeder (owner) of a variety is required for commercial production, marketing, export and import of his variety. The use of a protected variety for further research does not require authorization as per UPOV 1978 Act. However, the use in research requires written permission as per UPOV Act 1991.

5. Farmers’ Rights:

It refers to legal rights that are provided to farmers to save, use, exchange, share or sell his farm produce of a variety. Here the sale is restricted to non-commercial sale. The 1978 Act is beneficial, because it protects farmers’ rights. According to 1978 Act, farmers can use, reuse their produce as seed and have the right to dispose off their farm produces. However, 1991 Act has curtailed farmers’ rights. Farmers’ rights is also referred to as farmers’ privilege.

6. Breeders’ Privilege:

It refers to legal rights that are provided to plant breeders to use protected plant material for further research. Breeders’ privilege is also known as Research Exemption or Breeders’ Exemption. The UPOV Act 1978 provides Breeders’ Privilege. However, the Act 1991 has curtailed Breeders’ Privilege to use the material of a protected variety for further research.

7. Period of Protection:

The period of protection varies with plant species. For field crops, the minimum period of protection is 15 years as per 1978 Act and 20 years as per UPOV Act 1991. For forest trees, vines, fruit trees, ornamental trees and shrubs, the period of protection is 18 years as per UPOV Act 1978 and 25 years as per UPOV Act 1991. The UPOV Act 1991 is pro Plant Breeders.

Advantages of PBR:

Plant Breeders’ Rights have several advantages. Some important advantages of PBRs are briefly prsented below:

1. Incentive to breeders

2. Fast development of seed industry

3. Improvement in quality

4. Procurement of good material

5. Enrichment of genetic resources

Disadvantages of PBR:

There are some disadvantages of PBR which are briefly presented below:

1. Exploitation

2. Encouragement of unhealthy practices

3. Increase in cost of seed

4. Reduction in genetic diversity

5. Ban on use of own seed

Essay on the Role of Information Technology in Agriculture

Present scenario of IT:

i. The mobile internet is overtaking the wired internet.

ii. Networking is growing at a fantastic speed of 10-15% per month or about 200% a year.

iii. Specialists forecast that, in less than 10 years from now, Internet terminals would be as common as telephone instruments but much more useful.

iv. About 99% of the districts have Optical Fiber Network (OFN) providing desired bandwidth for Internet beings with computers such as keyboards, mouse devices, scanners. The advent of touch screen monitors that allow users to give input to computers by touching on the appropriate location of the monitor has made it possible to develop user-friendly interface for farmers which is easy, intuitive, circumvents language barrier and at the same time provides a relaxed environment to the users.

Output devices:

Monitor screens, printers and plotters, data projectors support high resolution and good quality output.

Objectives of IT:

i. To put information close to the managers, scientists, teachers, extension workers and farmers.

ii. To improve the capacity of researchers, teachers and extension specialists to organize, store retrieve and exchange information.

iii. To evolve mechanism of information sharing.

iv. To strengthen national libraries and library’s network through electronic access.

v. To develop database for easy access and data based decision-making.

vi. To spread information among the farmers.

Unique features of IT:

1. Access to the storehouse of information is easy.

2. Information is available instantaneously

3. Communication is interactive.

4. Information from any point in the globe is available.

5. Communication is dynamic and ever growing.

The key players for utilization of IT in agriculture:

1. The farmer: the actual person who can directly bring about an improvement in.

2. Efficiency and productivity in agriculture.

3. Various industries that provide inputs to agriculture.

4. Various industries that deal with agriculture output.

5. Institutions/organizations and NGOs working for the benefit of farmers.

6. Agricultural universities and research centers.

7. Central and State governments.

The key players listed here can make a big contribution to the economy with the assistance of IT.

The broad information inputs required by farmers:

i. Awareness databases:

Those facilities to farmers for proper understanding of implications of the WTO on Indian agriculture

ii. Decision support systems:

Information that facilitates farmers to make proper SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis to take appropriate decisions.

i. Information on new opportunities

ii. Monitoring systems for corrective measures

How IT helps in agricultural production:

(a) As a tool for direct contribution to agricultural productivity.

(b) As an indirect tool for empowering farmers to take informed and quality decisions, which will have positive impact on the way agriculture and allied activities are conducted.

Information technology helps indirectly in the way of:

Precision agriculture

Remote sensing

Expert systems


IT Centers for agricultural development:

Agricultural Technology Information Centres (ATICs) provide

Diagnostic services for soil testing, plant and livestock health

Supply of research products such as seeds, planting materials, livestock breeds, poultry strains, fish seed, processed products etc., emerging from an institution for testing and adoption by various clientele

Dissemination of information through literature, audio-visual aids and electronic media

An opportunity to institutions for resource generation through sale of their technologies

Support the district level ATMAs (Agricultural Technology Management Agencies) in technology dissemination.

Indian Society of Agricultural Information Technology (INSIT) & Mandates:

1. To mobilize farmers, scientists, institutions and organization

2. To encourage teaching, research and extension activities

3. To provide a forum for information exchange and dissemination

4. To organize training programme

Information technology has a major role to play in all facets of Indian agriculture in addition to facilitating farmers in improving the efficiency and productivity of agriculture and allied activities; the potential of information technology lies in bringing about an overall qualitative improvement in life by providing timely and quality information inputs for decision making. It can be argued that the next revolution in urgent need of focus is IT revolution in field of Indian farming.

Role of Women in Agriculture:

The women contributing to Agriculture production are usually called as Peasant Women (those who are working in the field) and Farm Women (those who are wives of farmers). The contribution of farm women to increased food production could be seen at terms of influencing farmers to (i) accept and adopt new technology to increase their farm income, (ii) modernise the farm through improved farm machinery, (iii) develop the farm with irrigation facilities, (iv) strength post harvest operations, (v) ensure safe storage of food grains, fruits, vegetables including food processing operations, (vi) timely marketing of produce to fetch attractive prices, (vii) encourage savings for investment on farm development, education of children etc.

It is evident that the farm women and peasant women are actively engaged directly/immediately in agriculture development process. The Government has taken up several activities to improve the professional skills and capabilites of these women.

With women the introduction of high yielding varieties programme and also technological advances in agriculture the gap between existing and desired skills has become wide. To narrow down the gap Farmers Training and Education Programme was started in 1966-67 under which 188 Farmer Training Centres (FTCs) were established. A lady demonstrator was appointed in each F.T.C. to take care of the peasant and farm women training and education.

A strategy to achieve the overall development of women in rural areas with special reference to women in agriculture include.

1. Formal and informal education of rural girls and women.

2. Training of rural women in farm and home activities.

3. Organisation of Rural Women Mandals, Rural Women Television Forums, Mass Campaigns etc.

4. Utilising interpersonal relations among rural Women to convince and motivate them for adoption of planned change.

5. Linking the planned development programmes for women with existing institutions viz. 188 Farmers Training Centres, 261 Krishi Vigyan Kendras, National Research Centre on Women in Agriculture etc.

6. Involvement of Women in Rural Institutions and all development programmes.

7. Education of Senior citizens in rural areas about role of Women in Development through film shows, poster, classes, discussions etc.

8. Modernisation of rural Social System through implementation of compulsory education for rural girls and adult education through functional literacy for rural women, intensive mass media facilities etc.

9. Liberalising the social and cultural values imposed on rural women.

10. Integrate the women groups in rural areas and form a network of rural women mandals in the country.

11. Create a voluntary movement of women for development of rural areas through assisting the change agents in implementation of developmental programmes.

12. Implementation of poverty eradication programmes designed for rural women.

13. Development of cooperative projects viz. fruit, vegetable and kitchen gardening, poultry rearing, bee-keeping, handicrafts, grocery stores, etc. minor construction projects-roofing, drainage channels etc. to help increase their income and improve the standard of living.

A special focus on development of peasant and farm women can be made through —

1. Creating a Women Extension Service Cadre in State Department of Agriculture to concentrate on specially identified clientele.

2. Identify and document the needs and problems of Women in Agriculture and accordingly design or refine the new or existing projects/programmes.

3. Promote environmentally and ecofriendly technologies for Women in Agriculture and encourage income generating enterprises to be undertaken by Women in Agriculture.

4. Incentives for outstanding contribution to boost the morale and encourage greater participation among other Women in Agriculture.

5. Telecast success stories/case studies to motivate the women for active participation in developmental programmes.

6. Modernise the implements/tools being used by women to reduce drudgery and to increased efficiency. In developing countries majority of women contribute to production of crops i.e. food production through manual/skilled labour advisory, extension service and also prepare and cook the food and their men and children thus it can be said that women feed the family, society, nation and the world.

Contract farming:

In this era of globalization, the concept of contract farming has been acquiring a greater momentum. Contract farming is a system for the production and supply of agricultural products under forward contracts between cultivators or suppliers and buyers. Here to cultivator commits to provide an agricultural product of a specified type at a specified time and at a specified price that is required by the committed buyers.

The process of contract farming seems to attractive of implemented in its good sense. The main feature of contract farming is that the contractor supplies all the material inputs and technical advise required for cultivation to the cultivator. In turn the cultivator supplies the required land and labour.

In India the central government has drafted a model law on agriculture marketing to provide among other things, legal support to contract farming agreements. Some of the state government has entered into a contract farm for various crops.

Modernization of Agriculture:

Agriculture is not an industry. It is an art and a way of life dealing with living beings. In the past years, it has undergone great changes all over the world. The important strategies of Agriculture are:

1. Increased food production

2. Saving the environment and attaining sustainability

There has been significant increase in the quantity of food produced and land conserved. This is the effect of modernization.

Drawbacks of Modernization:

1. Reduce the number of jobs, people engaged.

2. Workers replaced.

3. Rural Culture put under pressure.

4. People migrate in search of work.

5. Local institutions weakened.

6. Resources once considered as precious, has now turned a waste to be disposed off.

7. Water, Soil contaminated.

8. Agriculture has become fossil fuel intensive.

9. Increased application of pesticide.

10. Agriculture has begun contributing to global warming.

Reasons for the rejection of Modern Methods by the poor farmers:

1. High cost.

2. Poor extension.

3. Inappropriate incentives.

4. Inappropriate innovation.

5. General unawareness.

6. Local practices are better than modern methods.

7. Modern methods generate new problems.

Modernization of Agriculture in Indian Context:

In India when the mechanization of bullock energy changed to power tiller use, about 8% increase in output required 43% increase in energy input.

For tractor 13% increase in yield cost 74% extra energy.

For wheat tractor 6% increase in yield cost 266% extra energy.

Biodiversity Loss due to Modernization of Agriculture:

1. In India, once 30,000 varieties of rice were grown. But now 10 varieties cover 75% of the whole rice area. In the U.S. 65 types of vegetables lose 80-100% of the varieties of each since the turn of the 20th century. Of the 8207 varieties listed in 1903, only 607 are stored in seed forms. The greater the uniformity the greater the risk and danger of pest, risk and disease attack.

2. Loss of genetic diversity leads to future opportunity to raise adaptable crops and livestock.

3. A farmer prefers multi-cropping, inter­cropping, mixed-cropping but does not standardize his practices.

4. Farmers do not replace existing varieties of crops by a new variety.

Modernization of Agriculture and breakdown of rural communities:

1. Number of jobs for local people gone.

2. Standardization has reduced the management skills.

3. Rural poverty increases.

4. Food processing jobs are no more localized. Far away central factories do that work.

5. Growing gap between the rich and the poor.

6. Landscape homogenized; farming system simplified.

7. Youth show less interest in labour intensive farming. Many farms have no successors.

8. Farm size increases, family farms vanishes.

9. Frustration, financial crisis, suicide on the increase among farmers.

Self Help Groups:


It is a group of rural poor to have volunteer to organise themselves into a group for eradication of poverty of members’’.

3. Stages:

(i) Group formation.

(ii) Capital formation through revolving fund & skill development.

(iii) Income generation through economic activity.

Important features of SHG’s;

1. It consists of 10-20 persons.

2. All members of group belongs to families of Below Poverty Live (BPL).

3. There can be one person from one family.

4. One person cannot be member of more than one group.

5. Broad alliance with foreign countries.

6. Both public and private investments should be encouraged.

7. An efficient marketing system is available

Banking loans to SHG’s:

i. Through NGO/Voluntary agency.

ii. NABARD promotes SHG’s (improve rural poor).


(i) Enabling member to become self dependent and Self-reliant.

(ii) Providing forum for members of discussing social and economic aspects.

(iii) Enhancing social status of members.

(iv) Providing patterns of members for exchange of idea.