287 Words Essay on Pesticide Formulations

3 types of formulations —

1. Solid

2. Liquid

3. Gaseous.

1. Solid Formulations:

(a) Dusts:

i. Insecticides mixed with dust carriers called dusts.

ii. Toxicity of an insecticide increase as the particle size decrease.

iii. It should be applied in the morning hrs on wet foliage.

(b) Granules:

i. Dusts having 0.25 – 2.4 mm particle size.

ii. Used as dressing on or in the soil.

(c) Insecticide – fertilizer Mixture:

i. Granular insecticides added to fertilizers.

ii. Applied as regular fertilization time to provide nutrition to plants as well as to control the soil insects.

2. Liquid Formulations:

(a) Solutions:

i. Pesticide is in a single liquid phase either in water or in an oil.

ii. Most organic insecticides are insoluble in water and need on organic solvent to dissolve.

(b) Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC):

i. Commercially sold as EC to which a certain amount of water is added to make aqueous suspension suitable for spraying on plants.

ii. Clean solution and yields an emulsion when diluted witscreen. (e.g.) Alkaline Soaps, Organic amines, etc.

(c) Suspension:

Active material is suspended as solid particles.

(d) Foam Spray:

Chemical additive which when sprayed then special foam rozzles converses the pesticide.

3. Gaseous Formulations:


i. Compound volatile at ordinary temperature and sufficiently toxic.

ii. Advantage of using fumigant, places not easily accessible to other chemicals can easily be reacted due to the penetration and dispersal effect of the gas.

iii. Used to control Pests in storage bins, buildings, and soil insects, nematodes.

285 Words Essay on Hydroponics

Hydro-water and pones -labour literally meaning water working.


It is science of growing plants without the use of soil, but use of an inert medium such as gravel, sand, peat, vermiculites, or saw dust to which is added a nutrient solution containing all the essential for normal growth and development.


1. Much higher yields than those grown on the soil.

2. It can be used in places where ordinary agriculture is impossible.

3. Quality of the produce is always superior.

4. Freedom from soil borne diseases and weeds.

5. Less cost of management.

Essentially there are three methods by means of which plants may be grown without soil.

(1) Water Culture (Plant root in solution)

(2) Drip Culture (Sand culture, watered with nutrient solution)

(3) Gravel Culture (Most widely used) – It needs following accessories:

(i) Nutrient tank; made of concrete, wood or metal

(ii) Benches: Gently sloping benches made of concrete or wood.

(iii) Medium: Crushed graphite of irregular shape

(iv) Solutions; Different chemical solutions

Recent improvements in soil less cultures are Nutrient film Technique (NFT), Tube culture and Aeroponics.

(NFT) is a water culture, plants grown with roots in plastic film through which nutrient solution is continuously circulated.

Tube culture is developed NFT where the nutrient solution is pumped through PVC dress pipes through which the seedlings are set into the solution flowing along the bottom of PVC.

Aeroponics is growing of plants in an opaque trough or supporting containers in which the roots are suspended and bathed in a nutrient bath mist are suspended and bathed in a nutrient bath mist rather than solution.

306 Words Essay on Thinning in Horticulture (Fruits)

If the tree is permitted to mature an excessive crop, it becomes devitalised to the point where it not only produces an inferior produce but it becomes increasingly susceptible to diseases. So in order to ensure proper balance, thinning is practised in certain fruit crops.

Thinning is the removal of a part of flower buds, flowers or fruits (before it natural) with the object of:

(i) To increase the annual yield and marketable, fruits.

(ii) To improve the fruit size and colour.

(iii) It reduces the chance of large breakage.

(iv) If promotes tree vigour and ensures more regular bearing.

(v) It promotes more thorough spraying and dusting of fruits.

(vi) It ensures uniform ripening.


(i) Blossom thinning to prevent exhaustion.

(ii) Marble stage thinning to prevent over crowding.

(iii) Thinning after natural fruit drop of young fruits.

The amount of thinning of fruits depends upon

1. Fruit set 2. Response of the variety to thinning 3. Nature of pruning gives 4. Age of the tree 5. Value of increased sized fruits in market.


1. Hand thinning:

Costly, advisable, hand thinning of pea sized berries is beneficial in grapes.

Manual thinning is commonly practised in date palm.

2. Chemical thinning:

NAA 100 ppm when applied 2 to 4 weeks after petal fall stage in grapes reduces fruit set in Anab-e-sahi variety of grapes.

In mandarin, NAA, 600 ppm on marble sized stage is recommended to thin the overbearing fruits so as to increase the size and quality of fruit.

293 Words Essay on Flue Curing


Curing is a process of drying, decomposition of chlorophyll till green colour disappear, hydrolysis of starch into sugar and fermentation of sugar.

Flue curing is an improved method of curing, in which drying of leaves under artificial condition without contact of green leaf with smoke.

Feature —

i. Drying of leaf under controlled conditions.

ii. Starch get converted into sugar.

iii. Green tobacco becomes bright, aromatic and fine textured.

Variety Suitable for Flue Curing:

i. Virginia Gold

ii. Harison Special

Production Technique of Flue Cured Tobacco:

1. Raised with low nitrogen supply

2. Harvest at an advanced stage when rich in starch, low in Nicotine content.

3. The leaves are harvested by priming 3-4 leaves at a time.

Method of Flue Curing:

Harvested green leaves are strung on sticks


Stacked into a specially constructed flue cured pan.


Artificial heating with gradual increase in temperature till leaves dry.

Stages in Flue Curing:

1. Yellowing of leaf

2. Fixing of colour

3. Drying of leaf

1. Yellowing of Leaf:

i. Slow heating is to give optimum humidity.

ii. Retain Moisture

iii. At end, leaf attain lescion yellow colour

iv. Starch converted to sugar

v. completed within 1 to l 1/2 day

2. Fixing of Colour:

i. Increase temperature gradually with decrease in humidity.

ii. Completed within 1 to 1 1/2 day.

3. Drying of Leaf:

i. Drying the midrib of leaf

ii. Temperature of pan increase @5°C for 1 hr. till reaches to 170-180°F for one day.

iii. After drying leaves leaf in pan overnight with ventilation.

Essay on the Importance of Co-operative Movement to Indian Agriculture

They meet all types of credit viz., short term, medium term and long term credit requirements.

Co-operative Agricultural Credit Structure:

Short term and Medium term credit (three tiers):

1. State Co-operative Bank (SCB).

2. District Central Co-operative Bank (DCCB).

3. Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS).

Primary Agricultural Co-operative Societies (PACS):


i. To provide short term and medium term credit.

ii. To supply agricultural inputs like fertilizers and seeds.

iii. To provide marketing facilities for the sale of agricultural produce.

iv. To associate itself with economic and social welfare programmes of the village.

Sources of Funds:

Share capital, deposits, reserve funds and loans borrowed from higher institutions or govt.

District Central co-operative Banks:


i. To maintain close and continuous contact with PACS and provide leadership and guidance to them.

ii. To undertake non credit activities.

iii. To meet the credit requirement of member societies.

Sources of Funds:

Share capital, deposit from public, borrowing from state cooperative banks, Govt. RBI, SBI and commercial banks.

State Co-operative Banks (SCB):


i. Act as banker’s bank to the district central co-operative banks.

ii. Uniform credit policies for the cooperative movement are formulated and executed by them.

iii. It also perform banking functions such as issuing drafts, cheques, collecting and discounting bills etc.

Sources of Funds:

Share capital, reserve funds, deposit from members and non members, borrowings from NABARD, SBI and State Govt.

Long Term Rural Credit:

The long term requirements of the farmers were traditionally met by the money lenders but later by land mortage banks. These banks were later called land development banks. In recent years, they have been renamed as cooperative agricultural and rural development banks (CARDBs).


i. To grant loans on the security of agricultural properties.

ii. They lend at fairly low rates of interest and enable the needy farmer to secure funds for long periods.

It provide credit for a variety of purposes such as redemption of old debts, improvement of land, purchase of costly agricultural equipment, construction of wells and erection of pumps.

Sources of Funds:

Share capital, deposits and issue of bonds. They are subscribed by commercial banks, SBI and RBI.

Essay on National Food Processing Policy of India

i. Changes in state laws for regulated markets for allowing private sector participation.

ii. Contract farming.

iii. Private sector participation in agricultural extension services.

iv. Procurement of farmers produces by large food retailers or markets.

v. Improving post-harvest management, cleaning, grading, packaging and storage.

vi. Existing cold storage facility caters to less than 10% of the produces. It is mainly for potatoes and is rudimentary in nature. Hence there is a need for expanding cold storage facility for other perishable produces.

vii. Most of the limited controlled atmosphere storage facilities, technologies, protocols and machineries are imported. There is, therefore a need to upgrade manufacturing capabilities.

viii. Upgradation of research labs.

ix. Removal of conditionalities and caps on financing.

x. Warehousing receipts should be made negotiable instruments also there should be a system of accreditation of warehouses.

xi. Commodity markets should be stable and future markets more deepened. Banks, mutual funds and FIIs should be allowed in future trading and derivatives.

xii. Liberal funding from RIDF for infrastructure development for food processing sector. State should participate in joint ventures for infrastructure development.

xiii. R & D on ethnic foods.

xiv. Apex research institute should be set up to address R & D problems for the sector.

xv. Norms relating to Codex, HACCP, GMP and GHP should be met.

xvi. Integrated food law and liberal labour laws.

Essay on Hi-tech Horticulture

2. Hi-tech crop production of horticultural crops.

3. Protected cultivation.

4. Hi-tech plant protection.

5. Modern post harvest management.

6. Logistics and polices for Hi-tech horticulture.

7. Policy issues.

Overview of Hi-tech horticulture:

1. Introduction:

Horticulture crops occupy 13% of gross cropped area in the year of 2005-06. 37% of gross value of agriculture output and 50% of export earn­ing. Horticulture today is not merely a means of diversification from an integeral part of food and nutritional security.

2. Genetic resource conservation of characteristics:

1. In vitro collection and conservation of fruit like mango, jackfruit.

2. Tissue culture techniques.

3. Cryo preservation

4. Gene bank.

3. Hi-tech propagation:

Micro propagation:

1. Tissue culture units for propagation, Banana, papaya, cardamom, bamboo etc.

Hybrid seed and seedling production in vegetable and flower crops:

1. Use of male sterile

Flower: Marigold

Vegetable: Cabbage.

4. Hi-tech crop production:

High density planting

1. Mango: Amarpali

2. Apple: Mailing (m) and mailing marton (Mm) root stock.

Growth retardants are used: CCC, B-9

Integrated nutrient management:

1. Fertilizer (slows release and coated)

2. Organic manuring (FYM, poultry etc.,)

3. Green manuring

4. Green leaf manuring

5. Composting of farm-town compost

6. Bio fertilizer

7. Vermiculture

Micro irrigation:

1. Drip irrigation — root zone application

2. Sprinkler — for due effect.

3. Fertigation (Both water + fertilizer)

4. Chemigation

5. Herbigation

Organic farming:

5. Protected cultivation:

3. Wrist chamber for propagation

1. Green house cultivation

2. Low cost wire shade nets

3. Wrist chamber for propagation

6. Crop protection:

1. Integrated pest management.

2. Pesticide application methods.

Ultra low volume spraying.

3. Bio pesticide.

i. NPV

ii. GV

iii. Bt formulation

4. Pesticide residue management.

5. Molecular diagnostic.

7. Post harvest technology:

Grading: (Maturity, colour, shape, texture, flavour)

Packing and storage

i. Modified atmosphere packaging

ii. Controlled atmosphere packaging

iii. Bio degradable film packaging

Cold chain: Cold chain is temperature management facility involving a number of equipment such as Pre-cooling unit, cold storage, humidity control atmospheric storage, refrigerated and storage system.

Irradiation: It refers to physical means of exposing fresh or pre packed products to gamma rays.

1. Flowers: rose, gladiolus

2. Vegetables Canned, persevered candy

3. Fruits: Mango, citrus

Hi-tech processing:

1. IQF—Individual quick freezing

2. Osmotic & Asecptic technologies.


Quality standards

i. Sanitary and phytosanitary measure (SP)

ii. Technical Barriers to trade (TBT)

8. Logistics and policies

i. IPR issues.

ii. WTO concerns.

(1) Novelty

(2) Distinctiveness

(3) Imitating

Organisational support:

1. National Horticultural mission.

2. Budget allocation to NHC (National Horticulture Commission).

3. NUB


Human Resource development

i. Advance training for student in

Biotechnology micropropagation, green­house technology, seed production etc.


i. Horticulture engineering

ii. Land scape horticulture

iii. Processing (fruits & vegetables)

Research thrust:





NATP project

9. Conclusions:

1. Research in non core area to be taken up.

2. Various organisation like APEDA, NABARD, SFAC and FAO have to play a major pole.

3. Comprehensive, holistic approach towards integration of all technology leads to sustainable horticulture.

Essay on System of Rice Intensification


The system of rice intensification originated in Madagascar and was first synthesized in 1983 by Fr. Henri de Laulanie. Under the drought conditions of that year.


There are three basic concepts constituting system of rice intensification. They are to be applied with adjustments in specific practices like spacing and timing as appropriate to local conditions. Transplanting the seedlings while still young, <15-days-old, i.e., prior to the start of the 4th phyllochron of growth. This preserves plants potential for tillering and root growth that is reduced by transpjanting later. Direct seeding is an option, however, since what is important is that plant roots should not be traumatized after they start their growth trajectory, on or about the 15th day. Careful transplanting promotes rapid resumption of growth.

Wide spacing between plants is maintained with preferably just one plant/hill, and set them out in a square pattern, 25 cm x 25 cm or even wider if soil fertility is good. This gives room for profuse root and tiller growth, achieving ‘the border effect’ throughout the whole field. Another important aspect in SRI is to keep the soil both moist and aerated, at least during the vegetative growth period, so that roots have access to both oxygen and water. Under continuously hypoxic conditions, rice roots degenerate, with as many as 75% become dysfunctional by panicle initiation. Therefore, the aerobic conditions in SRI promote root growth substantially over submerged situations.

Specific practices include in addition to using young seedlings with still only two leaves, planted singly and widely spaced, frequent weeding, preferably with a rotating hoe that aerates the soil while it prevents weeds growth by churning them into the soil, application of small amounts of water daily, or alternate flooding and drying of fields for 3 to 6-day periods, and providing organic matter to the soil. Organic matter can be any decomposed biomass, including rice straw or weeds, manure or mulch can also be used. Green manures and cover crops are also useful. Correct implementation of the various, interdependent components (SRI practices) requires considerable field experience in which close observation and timeliness are crucial in minimizing labour requirements while maximizing total factor productivity.

Benefits associated with SRI:

1. Greater root growth

2. Increased tillering

3. Increased grain filling

4. Improved grain quality and higher grain weight

5. Water savings

6. Less lodging

7. Reduced pest and disease attacks

8. Reduced or no need for chemical fertilizers

9. Seed savings

10. No need to purchase new seeds

11. Low cost of production

12. Increased factor productivity and profitability

13. Reduced risks


Rice yields all over the world have leveled out under the present system of flooded cultivation. We need to be looking for alternatives to existing practices with an open mind. SRI is still evolving and it is hoped that the scientific community will collaborate in further refining the SRI practices and working out the scientific reasons for the reported higher productivity.

Planting young seedlings carefully and at wider spacing gives the plant more time and space for tillering and root growth. Careful water management keeping the field wet and not flooded gives better yield as it supports healthy root growth. This practice should be encouraged everywhere as the whole world is facing water shortages. Weeding rice fields with a rotary weeder helps by churning the soil and incorporating the weed biomass as it aerates the root zone. Therefore, seeing the overall benefits, the SRI needs to be evaluated further and refined to suit the local environments.

Essay on Farm Mechanisation

It is a need based process which provides sufficient time gap for self adjustment of various inputs without causing sudden impact of changes.


1. Increased irrigation facility

2. Introduction of HYV and new crops

3. Introduction of high dose of fertilizers and pesticides.

4. Multi cropping system and intensive cultivation.

Operational holdings in India:

Size of holdings (ha)No. of holdingsArea of holdings
Marginal (< 1 ha)39.056.414.912.0 Small (1-2 ha) Small-medium (2-4 ha) Medium (4-10 ha) large (> 10 ha)1.62.417.423.0


1. On time farm operation

2. Precision of operation

3. Enhancement of work and safety environment.

4. Reduction of less crops and food products.

5. Increased productivity of land.

6. Increased economic return to farmer.

7. Progress and prosperity in rural areas.

9. To perform difficult operations which cannot be done by animal and man power.

10. Proper utilisation of inputs like water, seed, fertilizer etc.


1. Small land holdings (1.55 ha)

2. Low investing capacity of farmers.

3. Agriculture labour is easily available.

4. Adequate availability of draft animals.

5. Lack of suitable farm machine for different operations.

6. Lack of trained man power.

7. Lack of co-ordination between research organisation and manufacturer.

8. Inadequate quality control.

9. Lack of repair and service facilities for machines.

Future Needs of Farm Mechanisation:

1. To develop multifunctional machines.

2. Development of combination machinery like minimum tillage, zero tillage, Till planter etc.

3. Better utilisation of solar, wind, energy and bio-fuels.

4. Efficient fuel utilisation – through better design and matching machinery.

5. Rain water harvesting and conservation.

6. Low cost micro irrigation and sprinklers using surface water needs to be developed and commercialised.

Essay on the Basics of Agricultural Statistics

2. In agricultural research, efforts are made to know the hidden regularities of the some aspects of soil, crops and other related biological phenomena. It may be yield potentials of crop, effects of pest incidence on crop yields, effect of changes in climate on crops and pests, effect of fertilizer application on crop yields, effect of cross fertilization of different crop varieties etc.

3. Modern statistical methods and statistical data are being found increasingly useful is research in different field experiences about crop yields with different types of fertilizers and different types of soils are very often designed and analyzed according to statistical methods.

4. Statistical methods are used for testing efficiency of chemicals and methods of treatment.

5. Agricultural economists use forecasting procedures in order to determine the future demand and supply of food. They are regression analysis in empirical estimation functional relationships between quantitative variable.

Aims of Statistics:

There are three aims of statistics

1. To study the population.

2. To study the variation and its causes.

3. To study the methods of reduction of data.

Definition of Statistics:

“Statistics are the numerical statements of facts capable of being analyzed and interpreted and the science of statistics is the study of principles and methods used in the collection analysis and interpretation of numerical data in any sphere of enquiry”.

Limitations of Statistics:

The important limitations of statistics are as given below:

1. It does not study qualitative phenomena.

2. Statistical studies are true only on an average.

3. It does not study individuals.

4. It does not reveal the entire story.

5. It is liable to be misused.